Keywords:eco-housing, developing countries, sustainable development, housing needs, housing shortage, energy efficiency, sufficiency
With its present growth rate (about 150 persons/ min.), as per UN projections, the world population will be crossing 11.25 billion by the end of the year 2100. As per the projections made, 57% of this population will be urban, out of which 95% contribution will be due to the developing countries. As a result, the population of 24 cities in developing countries will cross the figure of 20 million by the year 2025. Based on the List1 prepared by the UN, 50% of the 34-mega cities are already in developing countries.
As per the above projections, it is quite easy to predict future housing needs. Already there is a global shortage of housing for 2 billion people. This shortage will be becoming more and more acute if no immediate actions/measures are taken. This advocates the need for the development of mass housing projects. This shortage will further increase by the advancing years. But what about the tremendous impact on the field of energy usage of these future developmental projects of mass housing? As per International Energy Agency report 2008, Urban areas account for approximately 70%–80% of global energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions, and thus they are a major contributor to global warming.
A study of present processes of development with associated energy usage will help architects in designing mass housing with less energy consumption, leading ultimately to the conservation of natural resources and a less polluted urban environment.