AESOP TARTU congress

TARTU
AESOP Annual Congress 2022
Book of Proceedings

ISBN 978-9916-4-1319-7 

Published: 2022-11-22

Tartu Congress

  • Soil that is not artificially covered is capable of providing services with both direct and indirect benefits for humans. It is, therefore, essential to assess the impacts of different land-use and urban planning choices by estimating costs and benefits associated with different land-use scenarios and/or protection policies. 

    The dimensioning of municipal urban plans (Puc) sets the urban load, in accordance with the regulations, with the provisions contained in the Provincial Territorial Coordination Plans (PTCP) and on the basis of a careful analysis of the community's actual and...

  • URBAN DEMOCRACY AND ITS SUBJECTS AND MEDIUMS Democracy, whose precise meaning depends on whether an observer focuses on the individual or the collective, is a form of political control in its simplest expression. In representative democracies, the most prevalent form of government today, the equality between citizens before the law and the sovereignty of the people are essential. In democratic forms of government, political control and direction is either in the hands of the people or provided by representatives elected by them. The idea of the sovereignty of the people brings together...

  • Cecília wakes up at five every morning. Some minutes later, she wakes her daughter, Rosa, up so they can catch the six-five train. Then, they ride a bus to Rosa's school. Cecília follows her way towards another neighborhood where she works and studies. After school, Rosa attends her mom’s college classes and they both go home at night at a quarter to nine. If they manage to catch the last direct train, they get home at half past ten. However, if they ride the multiple-stop train, they only get home after eleven pm. Conceição wakes up at half past five, gets dressed, and then wakes her...

  • For decades, the Ruhr region in Germany was shaped by the coal mining industry. In the late 19th and early to mid-20th century, industrialization and accompanying urbanization processes turned small villages into large cities. In consequence, the Ruhr region became the largest industrial agglomeration in Europe with coal mines being both the main employer and an essential identity-forming feature.

    As of today, the Ruhr region has undergone another set of decades of structural change. Former industrial sites were re-cultivated and renaturated and by now, the region no longer...

  • The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most important hotspots of biodiversity in the world in terms of the richness of species (many endemic and rare species in need of conservation) and ecosystems. It hosts 1,215 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Other Effective area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs), covering 171,362 sq. km which places a surface of 6.81% under a legal designation. Over 72.77% of the surface covered is located in the Western Mediterranean, 90.05% of the total surface covered by MPAs and OECMs are found in EU waters (MedPan, 2016). To safeguard and secure...

  • Over the years, the term participation has become an integral part in the context of urban planning. Its importance has been acknowledged in the improvement of various aspects: relationship building between governments and citizens, stronger levels of democracy and decision-making processes, among others. Several typologies of participation have been derived from Arnstein’s influential “ladder of participation”. In order to pay closer attention to who is participating, in which context and for whose benefit, further steps need to achieve clarity through specificity, if the call for...

  • The literature on space and spatiality suggests that urban spaces are not fixed and self-contained but are rather relational, processual, dynamic, open, socially produced, and nested in a web of social relations (i.e., Healey, 2006; Jones & Jessop, 2010; Lefebvre, 1991). Such a perspective frames social spaces "as webs or networks with diverse morphologies, connecting people and events in one node to others near and far […that] emerge as nodes in one or more networks" (Healey, 2006: 526). Following Laclau and Mouffe's (2014) conception of urban social spaces as discursive...

  • To a generally acknowledged extent, climate change has changed this world, especially transformed human’s attitudes towards development pattern of modern society and living pattern in man-made environment to more cautious ones, in the meanwhile driving people to realize that so called “inherent differences” among different social groups might collapse because negative effects brought by climate change, or risks in a more academically way, do not just aim at the weakness. Risk society, of which the definition and theory framework have been constructed and developed by Ulrich Beck, Anthony...

  • In April 2021, a Polish colleague told us the story of a neighbour who lost her husband and her son in two weeks’ time. She was mourning her losses when she woke up and looked through her window and screamed her lungs out one morning. All the trees in the square were gone. She was devastated. The trees had been there since she was married and were a reminder and symbol of her love for her family. It just happened. Nothing could be done about it. Her story touched us deeply while raising the question that, in reality, where is the place of us as citizens in the formation of our very own...

  • Norway’s population is increasing, but rural municipalities all over Norway are undergoing depopulation. Of the most sparsely populated municipalities, 75% have had shrinking populations in the last 20 years, often with residents scattered over a large area. In the year of 2019, 71% of all Norwegian municipalities experienced a decline. These demographic developments are expected to continue in the coming decades (NOU 2020:15). Although policy-making and planning have long focused on counteracting these demographic trends, governmental studies show that only massive immigration or a...

  • Humans' exploration of "future cities" has never stopped. The experimental history of the future city is a development history in which human beings gradually meet their own needs and dreams through technological tools. With the great development of science and technology in recent decades, the economic structure and social organization of cities are undergoing unprecedented reorganization and transformation. In addition, the global COVID-19 pandemic has caused a lot of confusion and suffering. Thinking and answering about the future direction of cities, and what adaptive changes will be...

  • Since 2006, Chilean housing policy has undergone a paradigm shift by focusing its attention on improving the quality of the urban housing stock. At that time, it was considered that the quantitative housing shortage had a certain degree of control from the state and institutions, with a sustained decrease compared to the Latin American context. However, since 2017, the housing shortage has shown a worrying increase, currently reaching its highest point since the return to democracy in the 1990s.

    With a current housing shortage of 739,603 dwellings, representing almost 12% of the...

  • As the world is dealing with a Syrian refugee crisis, many countries have been faced with these changes in the urban environment. Especially in Turkey, this crisis has caused socio-spatial problems for both refugees and Turkish citizens. Turkey is one of the most preferred countries by Syrian refugees due to its geographical proximity and has been accepting Syrian refugees who have faced forced migration due to the ongoing war in Syria since 2011. The main reasons why asylum seekers prefer this country are spatial proximity, the existence of a common socio-cultural structure and the...

  • As concerns arise about the impacts of urban environments on health outcomes and healthy lifestyles, urban researchers are increasingly investigating the associations between the built environment and public health (Ha et al., 2022, Luo et al., 2022). Public Green spaces (PGS) offer various ecosystem services to city dwellers. The literature generally endorses the view that exposure to natural environments, especially green spaces is vital, for its evidenced benefits to people’s health and well-being both through active participation and as a salutogenic environment (Nutsford et al.,...

  • To provide better life style and wellbeing to human is not only the task but also for surrounding organism, an eco-efficient city administration design. Relating my dissertation topic climate resilient city –evolution of an urban ecological system focused on eco efficient city administration.

    Upper Silesian region which is shared between Poland and Czech Republic where the majority of area is shared by Poland. This area are famous for its underground coal mines , since centuries mines are operating these places(1)(2). Many towns are dependent on these mines....

  •  

    More than half of the world's population lives in cities, and according to the United Nations, about 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2050, given the current trajectory of urban growth. (United Nations, 2010) The growth of these cities causes climate change and aggravates abnormal weather phenomena such as heatwaves. This heatwave phenomenon causes the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon, which is one of the phenomena that occurs with the progress of urbanization, which refers to a phenomenon in which the air and surface...

  • Planning is an iridescent term. A glance at the literature shows how diverse the term planning can be understood, for example as state action, as spatial distribution of different zones or infrastructures, as governance arrangements of different actors, or as civil society engagement for the common good, and many more. Planning practice is defined accordingly in abstract terms in the literature: Planning as "linkage between knowledge and organised action" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974, p. 2), i.e. connecting knowledge and action, or as an attempt to control the future ("planning...

  •  

    Infrastructure planning is increasingly confronted with a dynamic environment and an engaged society. This necessitates decision makers to interact with their environment, resulting in the adoption of adaptive and participative planning approaches such as combined infrastructure and (organic) area development (De Roo et al., 2020). Giving room to stakeholders and to unforeseen developments implies incorporating uncertainty in planning and decision making and increases the complexity of planning. In current infrastructure planning, decision makers seem...

  •  

    Public spaces are ‘stages upon which the drama of communal life unfolds’ (Carr et al., 1992). They stimulate communication and integration among people of different social classes and groups. Their interaction with public life help establish connections between human beings and the urban environment. Thus, public spaces are endowed with cultural and emotional meanings, becoming the essential element of shaping and manifesting local identity (Čamprag, 2017).

     

    In historic cities, public spaces support memories...

  • The city is a carrier of all kinds of residents' activities and the core of public activities. With the rapid process of urbanization in China, the spatial structure of cities has been spreading, and in some cities, urban space has been redefined due to the construction of new districts and new cities, and the urban spatial structure has gradually evolved from a single center to a multicenter. In urban planning practice, multicentricity has become one of the common planning tools in major cities in recent years, and mega cities in China such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou,...

  • Trade infrastructure and logistical activities have long been a source of prosperity as well as nuisance. The gains and pains of logistics, however, are not distributed equally across regions and cities. Important trade hubs such as Rotterdam or Chicago have built strong trade institutions and accumulated urban wealth, hereby making a successful trade-off between the global gains of trade and the local pains of congestion and pollution (Cronon, 1991; Kuipers et al., 2018). Since the rise of global supply chains, such hubs have grown beyond their city boundaries and formed...

  • On a broad level, India can be divided into six types of climate (Padmanabhamurthy, 1990) This in conjunction with the country being situated in three of the major global flyways, makes conservation of avian species highly essential. The different climates lead to rich diverse biomes where the migratory birds stop, nest, breed and progess on to their destinations. The grasslands and wetlands throughout the country make effective pitstops for landbirds and water birds alike. With massive urbanisation taking over, these ecological spaces are constantly encroached, leading to a...

  • In the contemporary world we are facing four megatrends: population growth, population ageing, international migration and urbanization. All these trends interest both developed countries and developing ones, even if there are some differences and disparities among them. Moreover, they directly affect the sustainable development of nations and consequently have influence on people health and wellbeing.

    Paying attention on developed countries, and in particular on European (and Italian) cities, urbanization and population ageing are the two main issues to be...

  • Over the past 40 years, one of the strongest dialogues in the West has been the call to protect environmental resources, particularly access to the coastal environment. For example, in the mid-1970s the State of California created the Coastal Commission / Conservancy to protect, restore, and provide public access to California’s world-renowned coastal environment and marine resources. The California Coastal Commission (“CCC”) oversees all coastal development, manages habitat restoration and protection, and governs natural resource use.

    Coastal areas Section...

  • With the acceleration of urbanisation in China, most urban spatial structures have changed from "single center" to "multi center"; urban centers are also gradually showing the characteristics of functional compounding. Scholars' research on urban centers has experienced a transformation from geographical centers to functional places providing trade, finance, administration and other services (Christaller, 1933). Since then, the connotation of urban center is no longer limited to the central location of urban geographical structure, but more from the perspective of the...

  • With its present growth rate (about 150 persons/ min.), as per UN projections, the world population will be crossing 11.25 billion by the end of the year 2100. As per the projections made, 57% of this population will be urban, out of which 95% contribution will be due to the developing countries. As a result, the population of 24 cities in developing countries will cross the figure of 20 million by the year 2025. Based on the List1 prepared by the UN, 50% of the 34-mega cities are already in developing countries.

    As per the above projections, it is quite...

  • This is a burning problem of present era. The present unplanned and uncontrolled growth of housing cares little about energy conservation aspects. Sometimes even providing minimum energy to all households is not becoming possible by the local authorities. Studies reveal that around 18% of total energy consumption of mankind is in housing sector. It is necessary to consider energy conservation techniques before, during and after construction; as energy can be saved considerably in each stage. Over 80% of the embodied energy in mass housing is the energy required to manufacture...

  •  

    Culture is an important driver of innovation for heritage management and spatial development. In recent years, many scholars have analysed this phenomenon to understand the effects on the territory (Dodd, 2020). Culture indeed has a transformative ability to create new flows and growth in the urban space. It positively affects the enhancement of local resources, and promotes social interaction and community spaces (Clark & Wise, 2018). In recent years, much attention has been given to the creative regeneration of marginalised heritage, such as...

  • The Covid-19 emergency, although in different manner and measure, is changing habits and use of places and cities at global level. In many cities, public spaces became completely empty for months and new urban landscapes have substituted the previous ones, transforming the private in public (Sepe, 2021). Children and young have interrupted the school in presence to start that by internet; adults started the smart working; elderly begun to meet their sons through the computer. Houses and balconies were used for work and study, allowing people to go inside the private life of...

  •  

    After a century of car-oriented urban growth (Walker & Johnson, 2016), cities around the world are implementing policies and plans that aim to make their neighborhoods and streets more walkable and transit oriented. Renewed attention to walkability is driven simultaneously by the impending climate crisis, public health concerns, and a strive for economic competitiveness. With more than a third of all CO2 emissions attributable to the transport sector (EPA, 2021), it has become clear that climate goals will not be...

  • The phenomenon of migratory flows, which has been growing exponentially in Europe for more than two decades and is recently reaching its peak also as an effect of the political and economic instability in North-Africa and the Middle-East, represents a major element of change in the European social framework.

    Over the last fifty years, many European regions in the Mediterranean area, historically considered areas of origin of international migratory flows, have been transformed into places of reception. Underlying this mobility is the demand, by a variable...

  • In the backdrop of post-war economic growth and rapid urbanisation in Japan (late 1950s to early 1970s), many large-scale developments took place in suburban areas to counteract the critical situation of housing shortages. These social housings, referred to as “danchi,” which were suburban residential community with multi-family apartment blocks became a defining characteristic of the period. For its efficiency, danchi were generally developed into uniform homogenised forms. In reference to Relph's (1976) concept, lacking authentic and individual sense of...

  • The fact that abnormal temperatures and urban heat island phenomena are occurring all over the world has been revealed based on many existing studies. One of the causes of these abnormal temperatures and urban heat islands is human-induced urbanization. (Park Sang-wook, 2019) Nowadays, most cities in the world usually have temperatures between 1℃ and 4℃ higher than those in the surrounding rural areas, and the temperature increase in Korea is more than twice as fast as the average temperature in the world. In the past 100 years,...

  • Who does not know An Inconvenient Truth (Guggenheim & Gore, 2006)? Most people remember this as the title of a documentary film about global warming. Even people who did not see one image of it, know the film raised international public awareness on the subject. In fact, according to various studies (Butts, 2007; Jacobsen, 2011), awareness of climate change translates into behavioral change and in carbon offsets after watching the documentary. In any case, the film and its narrative concerning climate change and its consequences set things in motion.

  • Marvin Stiewing, Tobias Weber, Lena Fastner, Maximilian Henzel, Dominik Rettkowski, Martin Berchtold

     

    While gamification has already been a topic of discussion for years (Scholles, 2005, p.326-333), the reality of planning does look different. In the presented work, issues of the formal regional planning in Germany are depicted in general and specific on the Stuttgart region. Well-known as the key economic region in Baden-Württemberg and southern Germany with global players such as Daimler, Porsche and Bosch in economically performing sectors like engineering, automotive industries and business services, even Stuttgart faces several challenges, which...

  •  

    Chinese moral knowledge, immensely informed by the primitive cosmology and the ethical philosophy of Confucianism, had deeply affected people’s attitudes and way of life. It had been practiced throughout history by framing and ordering social practice on the land, becoming a part of the path of Chinese beauty (Li 1988). However, when China has gone into its fast urban development that is much influenced by the global economy and political movements, these traditional practices face extensive challenges from the dominant western paradigms. The...

  •  

    With the continuous development of China's economy and the entry of socialism with Chinese characteristics into a new era, the main social contradiction in China has been transformed into the contradiction between the growing needs of the people for a better life and the unbalanced and insufficient development. Regional economic disparity is an important manifestation of unbalanced development, a long-standing phenomenon in the process of China's economic development, and also the focus of continuous academic attention. With the continuous promotion...

  • As urbanization progresses, the rapid growth of urban population size and the surge in demand for land will lead to continuous urban development and spatial expansion. In the last century, the motor-oriented development model adopted by many cities in Western developed countries has induced a series of urban problems, including traffic congestion, air pollution, energy overload consumption, social differentiation and land waste. In this context, the concept of "New Urbanism", which advocates compact, high-density, diverse, mixed and sustainable development, has emerged, of...

  •  

    Community conflicts make communal life complete. From the perspective of urban governance, mitigating neighbourhood conflicts and creating a harmonious society are key duties for administration at the grass roots. As for residents, community conflicts add chaos to everyday life. And sometime, as Crenson (1983) found, they also create community bonds. All of this means that community conflicts play an important role in shaping community life. So, what factors influence the occurrence frequency and content characteristics of community conflicts, and...