science po paris

The Urban School and the CEE (Centre d'études européennes et de politique comparée) of Sciences Po are happy to invite you to Paris on July 8-12, 2024, weeks before the Olympic Games for the 36th AESOP Annual Congress 2024.

The congress's main theme, "GAME CHANGER? Planning for just and sustainable urban regions", questions the global narrative of large events and internationalisation strategies, even more so when the ecological transition is at stake. Scholars have critically assessed the impacts of international events like the Olympic Games, pointing at the enduring social inequalities and the impacts of major infrastructural works on the environment of the metropolitan region of Grand Paris. 

Published: 2024-06-26

TRACK 01: POSTGROWTH

  • Post-growth planning has been defined as a practice and a new planning regulatory framework that puts care (for land and communities), sufficiency, well-being, and autonomy at its center. Within post-growth planning scholarship, the key argument is that planning needs to indent the consolidated ideology of growth at many levels, from the regulatory frameworks that govern land use and value to the deeper worldviews and ideologies that motivate planning practitioners. Yet, scholars have hardly explained how these values, worldviews, and new regulatory frameworks come about. This is what I...

  • Simona R Gradinaru, Monica Paraschiv, Cristian Ioan Ioja, Jasper van Vliet

    Urban expansion is taking place at a high rate in Europe, with conversion of agricultural land, forest and other land use into built-up areas (Van Vliet, 2019). To halt this process, the European Union set a “No Net Land Take by 2050” target in 2011 (NNLT). Despite this policy, land take continues to occur in Europe, with studies suggesting that local decision-making is playing a major role in land-use conversions (

  • The paper explores a degrowth circular economy, namely a planning program of reducing and reusing urban material flows within cities. To do so, I will question the circular economy (CE) from a perspective of hegemony, ideology, and subjectivity. The paper, thus,  aims to conceptualise the relation between institutions and subjectivity in the study of the CE. While the CE is presented as a radical solution to the linear urban economy, critics point out that its current mainstream applications are underpinned by technocratic and ecomodernist ideologies (Genovese and Pansera, 2021). Indeed,...

  • In an era where the urgency of transitioning to a climate-resilient development model is highlighted by the current IPCC report, this paper addresses the complex relationship between urban planning, economic growth, and sustainability. Despite significant attention in contemporary policy discourse, particularly in using large-scale data for strategic urban planning, there remains a theoretical gap in understanding the interplay between economic growth, climate change, social justice, and economic sustainability. This gap has led to misconceptions in policy-making and urban planning...

  • We currently face existential challenges which demand radical change to how we live.  Taken with the potential transition to sustainable development, this radical change will strike deep into the heart of our ways of being, not just our ways of living.  There is an opportunity here to transform what it is to be human.  But what would we transform into?  Where can we learn these new ways of being?  Where are the models that could allow us to capture this transformation?

    Individualism has slipped all bounds. So much so that it is no longer possible to speak of community, except...

  • Large housing estates built using industrialised technology were, and still are, an important part of the housing stock of many European cities (Rowlands, Musterd and van Kempen, 2009). In the face of wartime devastation and continuing urbanisation, their construction was often the only available way to meet the housing needs of a growing urban population. These estates offered residents a step-change in their living conditions, yet they became the subject of negative narratives (Zupan, 2021).

    An...

  • Sub-Saharan Africa’s rapid urbanisation must be understood as integrated into a peculiar culture and serving the needs of a rapidly developing society. Against a rigid and partially outdated urban planning framework, new policy-driven urban development is necessary to achieve sustainable city growth and deal with contextualised factors.

    For this purpose, this study looks at the urban setting of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. It demonstrates that renewable technologies may be used as a tool towards a net zero strategic territorial development, with ongoing horizontal growth finally...

  • Within the emerging gamut of heterodox trends in economics and post-growth planning theories to face climate change and the rising global inequalities, we look at the UK and focus on the Foundational Economy (FE). As for the other parallel frameworks, the greatest challenge is represented by turning key theoretical principles into real policy and practice. The Welsh government tried to do so, by embedding FE guidance into the Welsh Economic Action Plan (2017), formally embracing the FE to deliver a long-term, sustainable economy to the whole Welsh region. The FE has since formally...

  • The existing emphasis on economic growth, measured predominantly through Gross Domestic Product (GDP), as a means to achieve societal well-being, has been broadly deemed problematic. GDP is associated with increasing environmental and social costs asymmetrically distributed among the population and social groups. Economic growth alone is insufficient to guarantee sustainable and inclusive well-being (Rojas, 2019).

    The central thesis of our approach argues that increased GDP rarely translate into improved well-being. In this presentation, we introduce the 'Getting WISER' – a...

  • Post-growth has almost always been approached from the perspective of cities, too often forgetting rural areas. Referring to urban areas, research and reflection on this topic have mainly considered issues such as housing, infrastructure, real estate and industrial development. However, also in the light of contemporary global challenges – climate change, energy crisis, access to limited natural resources, demographic and economic transformations –, it is becoming urgent to also look at differently inhabited territories from a post-growth perspective:...

  • Post-growth planning is an urgent new paradigm seeking to reorient urban development goals away from economic growth and towards ecological and social well-being. There is a need, however, for this emerging field to pay more attention to the fundamental role of cultural politics in enabling such a shift. In response, our research foregrounds...

  • This paper reflects on the possibilities to tackle more effectively an entire host of sustainability concerns and related upscaling questions, albeit on a different note than articulated by incumbent urban agendas. It does so from a speculative and, not least, critical standpoint, whereby a postgrowth orientation in planning is chiefly informed by infrastructures of curatorship. Such infrastructures are further problematized in view of several evocative cases from the Netherlands, to elucidate how the circulation and concoction of heterogeneous ideas and materials provides important...

  • In the context of a long-term urban-rural dual system guided by urban growth, the problem of rural decline has become increasingly prominent. It has become an important issue in China to revitalize the countryside and coordinate the relationship between urban and rural areas in order to achieve Chinese path to modernization. At present, the concept of "realizing ecological value" as an incentive measure for ecological protection has attracted more and more attention from institutions and scholars. However, research on using the value realization of ecological resources to drive rural...

  • Public infrastructures are crucial in attempts to achieve a circular economy and especially net-zero targets for resource uses, such as recently strengthened both on the European level and in the Netherlands. Given the sheer volume of emissions and primary materials attributed to public infrastructures, initiatives of public infrastructure providers are important to achieve sustainability targets. However, the discretionary power and the role of such governmental agencies, as well as the instruments and practices within these agencies, have been less recognized...

  • Agnes Förster, Christina Jimenez-Mattsson, Daniela Karow-Kluge

    Even before the coronavirus pandemic, urban centers were facing the challenge of adapting. The Corona crisis acted as a magnifying glass on this development. It reinforced ongoing trends that, together with the growth of online retailing and changes in work and leisure patterns, have triggered further profound structural change in city centers. For example, the pandemic in the city of Aachen has increased the vacancy rate in the city center, with negative effects on the surrounding area. At the same time, the city center is of paramount importance for Aachen's vitality, identity, and...

  • Faced with far-reaching challenges that call into question their ability to cope with both long-term shifts (climate change) and short-term shocks (financial crises, Covid-19 pandemics, regional conflicts), contemporary societies are placing increasing expectations on planning (Recklen, 2021). In the European Union (EU), this trend is leading to an increasing number of strategies being required at national level - national energy and climate plans, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) strategic plans, and national recovery and resilience plans are some of the most prominent examples.

    ...
  • Setting the scene: the eco-crisis we are dwelling in.

    Sixty-two years ago, when Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring, the environment was not a matter of public and political concern, and the outbreak of environmental awareness she started at the peak of the modern economic growth narrative was fiercely opposed. Since then, one could argue, environmentalism has come a long way: the green paradigm has now become an essential requirement and often a driving force for politics and policies all over the world. Nevertheless, unprecedented ecological...

  • Europe is confronted with many societal challenges resulting from a so-called “poly-crisis”! The house that humanity needs Mumford (1922) to build as a society demands new ideas towards different futures, to accommodate events like climate change and biodiversity collapse or to end carbon-based capitalism. It requires, as will be suggested in this contribution, the development of a “utopian dreaming capacity”. Such a utopian dreaming capacity includes an element of educating desire. Ernst Bloch (1985 (1954), p. 5) calls this “educated hope”, but it is also the education of...

  • This paper problematizes the production and institutionalization of the urban-non-urban divide within growth-dependent economies by analyzing a highly contested development in the periphery of Amsterdam's city-region. Drawing insights from urban political ecology and bioregionalism, I argue that urban degrowth needs to overcome the urban-non-urban divide to localize value chains and envision a regional system of cooperation and sufficiency, embedded in the ecological conditions of a specific region. Decentralization and re-localization are considered key aspects of degrowth transitions...

  • Can future urban models easily get rid of well-established practices? On 29 November 2021, the Metropolis of Lyon launched an urban foresight approach to formulate scenarios for the development and transformation of the "Grande Porte des Alpes" area by 2050. This "historic development territory of the Lyon metropolitan area" covers 1,350 hectares and is home to almost 13,000 jobs. It thus represents a considerable economic and urban challenge, but also poses decisive societal and political challenges: "its evolution potential gives it an essential role to play in...

  • Within the world of urban-regional spatial development and its accompanying models and theories, the German Ruhr Valley has always occupied a special space. From the late 19th century on, large-scale coal mining and steel production operations created a heavily industrialized, poly-centric landscape where urban, industrial, residential, commercial, recreational, and rural elements became interspersed in ways that were fundamentally different from the typical European city ideal. It became the main inspiration for Tom Sieverts famous concept of the ‘In-Between-City’...

  • The global emergence of COVID-19 has triggered an unprecedented global health emergency, compelling nations to implement drastic measures to curb the virus's spread. These measures often took the shape of non-pharmaceutical interventions, prominently enforced through extensive lockdowns in Italy, marking the first instance of such widespread restrictions on this scale. These actions effectively halted societies worldwide, affecting every facet of social and economic life.

    One notable consequence was a speculated shift in internal migration patterns, with reports suggesting a rural...

  • In contexts such as the US, where growth-led planning is guiding spatial development, envisioning post-growth planning patterns is difficult. Such a challenging task is even more difficult within the realm of housing planning, where planning tools (i.e., zoning, incentives, etc.) have often been used as a fiscal device to increase cities’ revenue. In similar contexts, a post-growth horizon of work is often unimaginable even by individuals and groups opposing pro-growth futures. Thus, it should be generated ex-novo if diverse planning is desired. Drawing from the author’s engaged work in...

  • Global, regional, and local sustainability agendas regularly address the use of material resources and especially of land for building settlements and infrastructures. More recently, European debates and European Union policy strengthen the requirement to become circular in the mid-term future. The European Soil Strategy 2030 aims towards net zero for additional land use by 2050 and mirrors respective targets, for example, in the German Climate Adaptation Strategy and the national implementation framework for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Against the background of spreading...

  • In 2015, all UN member states adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As part of the 17 Goals agreed upon, SDG 11, on Sustainable Cities and Settlements, vowed to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. There is a shared responsibility between public and private sector actors in shaping the urban environment. Benchmarking  the progress of the public sector actors on SDG goals is mainstreaming, including several dimensions of sustainability such as annual employment statistics, air quality reports, or initiatives where cities are ranked,...

  • Ondřej Slach, Vojtěch Bosák, Lucia Hýllová, Lenka Paszová, Alexandr Nováček, Kateřina Skudříková

    The growth orientation of decision-makers has been considered one of the main hindrances to sustainable transition. This contribution aims to reveal obstacles, which are limiting de-growth approaches in the studied case. In the end, de-contextualized implications for the research agenda on the nexus between urban shrinkage and de-growth are derived. The city of Ostrava provides an interesting case study for such research since the problems caused by shrinkage are known to decision-makers, but ignored, and existing responses to urban shrinkage are purely pro-growth oriented, which causes...

  • From Howard's garden city movement to Taylor's concept of satellite cities, and to Saarinen's organic evacuation theory, the development of new towns has been affected by the background of the eras. As the largest metropolis in China, Shanghai's new towns have developed from first-generation bedroom towns to relatively independent satellite towns, and to new regional node towns. Nowadays, in the postgrowth era, sustainability and de-carbonization have become the new themes of urban development. The government announced that Shanghai will achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. At the same...

  • As infrastructure tends to be heavy in terms of both impacts and investments, decisions in this domain are not to be taken lightly. For making logical, informed and transparent decisions, the dominant appraisal method is cost-benefit analysis (CBA). It is mandated by institutions such as the EU, World Bank and Asian Development Bank, but is also strongly criticised by environmental and social scholars. CBA gauges a project’s social desirability or ‘sustainability’ by translating and aggregating not only the economic but also the ecological and societal impacts into a monetary value,...

  • Climate change has gradually aggravated in the last decades. The recognition that the building industry alone is one of the main contributors to anthropogenic global carbon emissions (Eurostat, 2017) has influenced how cities are planned to be more sustainable, particularly to achieve green buildings.

    While a green shift is needed, environmental justice scholars have been calling attention to analysing and confronting the colonial injustice behind the ecological transition that continues to privilege the Global North, under the cost of degradation, exploitation, and violence in...

  • Local communities worldwide are facing multiple crises, spanning cost-of-living challenges, climate change impacts, political instability, health disparities, and spatial inequalities. In response to these multifaceted challenges, the imperative of cultivating a 'wellbeing economy' emphasises that reshaping growth to prioritise human and planetary wellbeing through the integration of environmental, economic, and social sustainability is essential for navigating the complexities of the contemporary urban landscape (Hayden and Dasilva, 2022).

    Social innovations for urban...

  • All over Europe, rural and inner areas suffer increasing marginalization: shrinking processes due to a long-term decline phase driven by changes in production, job opportunities, and innovation, lead residents to move towards urban areas, looking for better living conditions. The abandonment of entire villages and the ‘deagrarianisation’ of these territories induces the loss of a significant social capital, in terms of local cultures and traditions, but also of traditional agro-silvo-pastoral practices that have for long contributed to ensure a biocultural...

  • In the dynamic evolution of urban development, nomadic communities, through temporary adaptive reuse, emerge as a transformative force, reshaping abandoned spaces into vibrant and meaningful places. The HORIZON-MSCA-2022-PF-01 NOMAD research project, "Nomad Management of Urban Development - The Complex Value of Temporary Communities," explores the impacts of temporary uses and the pivotal role of urban nomads in urban regeneration processes.

    In particular, the NOMAD research focuses on different cases of experimental temporality (Madanipour, 2017). Experimental temporary...

  • Planning beyond growth, or post-growth planning, has been promoted as both a response to the ongoing sustainability crises (Barry, 2019), and as an adaptation strategy to a future where growth cannot be taken for granted (Crownshaw et al., 2019). Two initiatives that have been launched are Wellbeing Economy Alliance (WEAll) – a network of cities, local governments, businesses and civil society groups across the globe which are committed to transform their economic system to one that is oriented towards wellbeing rather than towards economic growth (Fioramonti et...

  • Since the economic reforms 1978, the Chinese city has undergone a multifaceted urban transformation process. It has shifted from the previous central planning to a “market economy with Chinese characteristics”. Unlike advanced areas, the northeast region has gone through a struggling social-economic restructuring since the economic reforms. The region was characterized by the “Northeast Phenomenon”. In 2002 the policy of “Northeast Area Revitalization” was first proposed. Since 2011, the economy in the Northeastern region has experienced another downturn, accompanied by significant...

  • With the development of the 5G mobile communication technology and mobile Internet industries in China, urban space and people behavior presented a trend of OMO (online-merge-offline), which has facilitated the creation of new consumption spaces, including the invisible consumption spaces that have recently emerged in metropolitans in China.

    Different from traditional consumption spaces on the streets or in shopping malls, the invisible consumption spaces are mainly located in high-rise buildings and rely on online platforms to operate. The invisible consumption spaces mainly...

  • With a deeper focus on climate resilience and sustainability, many metropolises have developed strategies for smart growth. Beijing, a metropolis in the global south, has faced challenges with city dysfunction due to its large population and rapid growth. However, since the implementation of its Master Plan for 2016-2035, Beijing has set a growth cap and is now moving towards a post-growth phase with limited construction and micro-interventions. This study presents three typical cases of micro-intervention urban regeneration in Beijing: No.17 Guangminglou Residence, Wangjing Walk...

  • Degrowth city or degrowth planning is often confused with shrinking city, though the two concepts have a clear difference. The word “shrinking city” describes the phenomenon of a city shrinking in size, while the word “degrowth city” or “degrowth planning” describes an alternative planning ideology.

    Khmara and Kronenberg (2023) provides a distinction between a shrinking city and a degrowth city and acknowledges the usefulness of applying urban degrowth concept to shrinking cities. Schindler (2016) gives the example of Detroit to showcase the possibility of incorporating degrowth...

  • The city, as a system that moves energy and information, faces an uncertain future. Therefore, planning activities have to incorporate the capacity of cities to adapt to transformations, to propose versatile urban models and flexible forms of urban action, which allow reorienting decisions to adapt to new contexts.

     The “three arrowsAbenomics policies, aimed for the geopolitical rebranding of the country, were designed to tackle the consequences of the “lost decade” as well as the demographic challenges faced by the country (Hausman and Wieland, 2015)....

  • Designated three times to host the Summer Olympics in 1940, 1964 and 2020, Tokyo is a city whose development is historically linked to the Olympics. Despite their recurrence, Olympic Games had different impacts on Tokyo according to each session and each context. If Tokyo 1964 appeared to be a true turnaround for the host city at a time Japan was experiencing a high growth rate, Tokyo 2020’s meaning for the city is still unclear, especially because Tokyo has been becoming since the 2000s what Japanese people call a “mature city” – a developmental stage related to late capitalism in...

  • Zhiqiang WU, Shuang ZHAO, Weipeng DENG, Tianhua ZHU, Tianren YANG, Zeyin CHEN

    The intersection of industrialization and urbanization has long been a driving force behind the development of urban industrial spaces. As technology and innovation continue to evolve, cities have adapted to accommodate various industries, shaping new spatial configurations alongside population growth and improved infrastructure.

    Today, the fourth industrial revolution, propelled by disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, additive manufacturing, and quantum computing, is reshaping our world. In this era of Industry 4.0, urban spaces must respond to the...

TRACK 02: MARKETS

  • State law requires local governments in California to make plans that can accommodate new low-income housing development every eight years, by developing lists of specific sites that are apt for new housing projects. These sites are not reserved for low-income housing, and affordable housing developers must acquire them on the market. Existing research suggests that these sites mostly go undeveloped (Kapur et al., 2021). Since 2021, however, the state of California has more aggressively implemented this planning mandate for housing than ever before, by...

  • This contribution focuses on philanthropic organisations and their management of real estate assets. While scholarship has often framed philanthropic organisations as actors using their resources for the «public good» (Anheier, 2001), others have instead adopted a more critical approach, highlighting the need to inquire the influence of philanthropic institutions on urban governance (Fuentenebro and Acuto, 2022).
    The contribution aims to further understand philanthropic organisations by problematizing the public value of their actions. It means avoiding assuming a priori that their...

  • The property sector is increasingly recognizing the importance of social value, yet its integration into urban development practices in planning remains limited. The elusive nature of social value, shaped by diverse actors with varying motivations, is exacerbated by the absence of defined goals and objectives. This complexity results in the loss of social value in translation in property development processes, but more so, due to the entrepreneurialism of governments that rely on the private sector to achieve their objectives. This paper diverges from dominant market-driven and...

  • In Italy, the access to adequate housing is currently reduced for large segments of the population, in particular for young people and immigrants belonging to the lower classes (Bank of Italy 2019) and for women and racialised or queer subjectivities, since they often have “lower and more precarious incomes'' (Olcuire 2023, 77). Moreover, the effects of the commodification and financialisation of housing are also increasingly felt by the middle class (Filandri and Olagnero 2014, Filandri et al. 2020). The trend of evictions testifies the Italians' dwelling difficulties: it has risen from...

  • How a city is being transformed due to market forces in a developing country? How do city planning authorities deal with private actors to ensure people’s lives improve? This proposal deals with these questions int the context of a mega city experiencing growth in South America’s Peru.

    The Santa Cruz neighborhood, in Lima, Peru can be traced to the 1900s when a small portion of one big Hacienda was partitioned, subdivided in small lots, and sold to former slaves (Orrego Penagos 2013). It evolved into basic housing units, concentrating woodshops, car mechanics, basic services, and...

  • The urban life of Venice is chronically undertreat: the number of tourists accommodation  has outnumbered the residents, touristisation and short term rentals have contributed to raise rents and housing prices, displacing former inhabitants (Salerno, 2023) desertifying services. Venice is transforming itself into a haven for wealthy and affluent individuals (Butler and Lees, 2006), subject to transnational gentrification dynamics (Siegler and Wachsmuth, 2020), and real estate tourist led financialisation (

  • Since the early 2000s in France, many social housing neighbourhoods, mostly built between the 1950s and the 1970s, have been the target of a substantial urban renewal policy (known as “rénovation urbaine”), led by a state agency established for this purpose in 2004. This urban renewal policy aims at addressing some of the problems which have been pointed out since the late 1970s in the “grands ensembles” neighbourhoods, spanning over more than 20 years of the so-called “politique de la ville”, which involved special actions and funds for these areas. The latter...

  • Discussions of real estate development often focus on describing developers, participants and outcomes, and the process is often seen as a "development game" where planners and developers are in opposition. In contrast to the traditional "top-down" planning approach, this study takes the entire process of equal negotiated planning process between the government and real estate developers, as a case study. By analyzing the reasons for negotiation failure, the aim is to use this as a research basis for expanding negotiated planning process to the field of statutory planning. This article...

  • The concept of Tradable Rights in Land originates in property law as applied to geographical space where land ownership is considered a bundle of rights, the components of which can be treated separately, e.g. Development rights, air rights or mineral rights etc. (Renard, 2007). This allows the formation of a marketplace for the components of Land, in our case development rights, which can be exchanged between landowners/beneficiaries in one geographic area and developers who want to build greater intensities/densities in another. Such Transferrable Development Rights are a shift away...

  • Transfer of Development Rights and Density Bonus (TDR&DB) is often vaguely and implicitly used as a financial compensation tool to achieve a comprehensive cost-benefit balance in the regeneration of Shanghai's historic conservation areas. However, this is a misinterpretation and deviation of the effect of TDR&DB. This paper takes the 17th and 69th neighbourhoods in Hongkou District as an example, explains the constraints on the cost-benefit of regeneration, analyses the market mechanism of TDR&DB, and evaluates the economic benefits of TDR&DB in detail using the land...

  • In response to persistent austerity, local governments are actively exploring innovative financing strategies for public infrastructure investments. Notably, public value capture (PVC) techniques have gained prominence, with a specific focus on developer obligation (DO) policies. Unlike direct approaches targeting property value increases, DOs operate as indirect modes of value capture. DOs traditionally require in-kind or financial compensation for costs incurred by authorities but caused by private development projects (Alterman, 2012). However, in regions such as the UK, the...

  • A significant body of literature has extensively documented the transition towards more market-oriented, neoliberal, and frequently financialized systems of housing production. This transition has often depicted market actors as influential entities capable of shaping policies and laws in their favor. Numerous case studies have exemplified the Netherlands as a primary illustration of this phenomenon, demonstrating the sequential neoliberalization of housing production during the 1990s followed by financialization in the 2000s (Aalbers et al., 2021).

    From the postwar reconstruction...

  • Heightened political concerns surrounding housing are intricately tied to intensified regulatory efforts employed by states to oversee activities and processes within residential property markets. This has resulted in the emergence of complex, multilayered, and fragmented governance structures. Concurrently, discussions on housing as a fundamental social value are experiencing a resurgence, notably intertwined with Mazzacuto’s (2018) influential critique, challenging the prevalent understanding of value creation predominantly in economic and financial terms. This paper examines housing...

  • In recent years, the field of tax geography has experienced significant advancements (Tapp & Kay, 2019). While numerous studies have explored the impact of tax policies on real estate production, much of the existing research has focused on global, national, or local scales, overlooking the examination of inter-scale relationships. This research seeks to address this gap by exploring how local governance and development systems can mitigate or redirect the effects of a spatially selective national tax policy on urban development.

    This paper analyses the local effects of a...

  • Nuno Travasso, Sílvia Jorge, Aitor Varea Oro, Cynthia El-Dash

    Like other European countries, Portugal is undergoing a severe housing affordability crisis, which started with a sudden growth of housing prices in its two metropolitan areas – Lisbon and Porto.

    Based on statistical and GIS analysis, the paper will demonstrate that such growth correlates with a shift in property market dynamics that followed the 2007-08 Global Financial Crisis: real estate investment is now intensely concentrated in the main urban centres, contrasting with the diffusely distributed investment of previous...

  • The increasing relevance of institutional investors on rental housing markets has recently caught the attention of researchers and policymakers alike. Despite producing relevant insights, the literature on (rental-) housing financialization has traditionally been lacking comprehensive quantitative evidence. Drawing on arguments from both theoretical and applied contributions, we thus propose a quantitative approach to empirically capture housing financialization as a spatio-temporal process. Therefore, data concerning juristical owners, built structures, as well as company activities and...

  • Since the 2008 financial crisis, a significant shift has occurred in the global housing market. This change is particularly evident in the transformation of the economic structure of the housing market, marked by the increasing influence of financial actors in the residential sector (Aalbers, 2016). In the past years, the tenure patterns of the Latin-American population have tended to move towards the rental market, changing the traditional relationship between finance and housing through homeownership. Indeed, studies on housing financialization in Latin America have been historically...

  • In this paper, I traverse diverse theoretical positions on the entrepreneurial state. The purpose is to explore the nature of embedding of the liberalized state with the private sector across stages of its evolution. I focus on the state’s adoption of Public Private Partnerships (PPP), a mechanism structured as a company with no political representation. Transport infrastructure projects in modernisation of airports and national highways serve as cases.

    Contrary to traditional scholarly perspectives of the neo-liberal state which withdraws from its societal accountabilities, in...

  • This paper presents an in-depth exploration of commercial real estate investments in France's urban peripheries, focusing on high-return, high-risk strategies, particularly in the context of value-added and opportunistic investments. By integrating methodologies from quantitative geography and political economy, this research uncovers the complex network of opaque corporate transactions, demonstrating the interconnectedness between global investors and local real estate dynamics (Sassen, 2001; Christophers, 2023). The study covers a comprehensive geographical scope across France,...

  • The ‘financialization’ of land expands in all countries where real estate is negotiated as financial assets, products, and...

  • The paper wants to present and analyze an example of the application of the Special Public Private Partnership (SPPP) as a specific instrument introduced by the Italian legislation to favor the reuse of immovable cultural heritage for cultural purposes, thanks to the definition of "alliances" between public bodies and private subjects.

    The case study analyzed concerns the process of reuse for cultural purposes of the former Monastero...

  • This contribution interrogates the recent re-emergence of state-led land acquisition practices in the Paris region, most notably evidenced by the rise of a dedicated, publicly-owned land agency, and highlights their potential contribution to the financialization of urban redevelopment. In the past decade, a growing body of research has drawn attention to the key role played by governments in “creating and maintaining the conditions for urban assets to be traded as financial commodities on capital markets”, for example through providing permissive “socio-regulatory infrastructures” or...

  • Urban mega-projects are key policy instruments (Salet, 2007; Flyvbjerg, 2014) for connecting financial and real estate markets through the financialization of large-scale strategic lands and the 'deterritorialization' of actors, decisions, and strategies. In that sense, such projects can be seen as ‘levers’ capable of welding the objectives of the financial market to the real estate industry, particularly by converting land-value capital into financial capital following the logic of business plans tailored by property developers and their investors. Moreover, urban mega-projects are...

  • It is known that financialization is a multi-scalar phenomenon and process with implications for state institutions that both influence and are influenced by financial dominance. The incorporation of investor logic in the formulation and implementation of urban public policies, from both the supply and demand perspectives, is one of the constitutive features of a state-led financialization. However, before impacting the formulation and implementation of public policies, the so-called state-led financialization established constitutional guarantees for creditor payments, the imposition of...

  • While ‘planning’ and ‘the market’ are often framed as being in autonomous opposition, they are in fact deeply entangled. Indeed, the varying articulations of planning regulation across different historical and geographical contexts can be viewed, in part, as a function of differing ideas regarding the proper integration of planning and development land markets (Shepherd & Wargent, 2023).

    Nowhere in planning is this ambiguous relationship between planning and the market more starkly revealed than in land value capture, the policy mechanism that redistributes the value created...

TRACK 03: LAW

  • Similarly, as in most other countries, the Norwegian land-use planning system has its peculiarities. In the Middle Ages, Norway had a kind of building and land-use legislation governing the width of city streets and alleys to mitigate consequences of fires in closely located wooden buildings. During the first half of the 19th century Norwegian legislators passed particular building acts for Christiania (Oslo), Bergen and Trondheim respectively, and in the second half of the 19th century they also passed building acts for the new cities that evolved near railroad...

  • Land readjustment, a promising but often overlooked method, faces several challenges in Portugal and is often perceived as “theoretically attractive but eternally postponed in practice” (Condessa et al, 2018). Aligned with the principles of the French model (Larsson, 1997), this process searches for the balance between urban expansion and sustainable development, placing the primary responsibility on landowners. Braga, like many rapidly growing cities, faces the imperative to accommodate a growing population while preserving environmental integrity. The tension between these two...

  • The requirements of urban districts have evolved, necessitating legal adaptations for efficiency. Recognizing this, Germany is in the process of amendment of its Building Code (Bundesministerium für Wohnen, Stadtentwicklung und Bauwesen, 2023). In addition, the German Building Code stipulates developing inner rather than outer areas of urban districts in its first paragraph. Furthermore, the shift towards resource-efficient, resilient urban areas introduces new challenges in reorganizing ownership and tenure structures. Implementing infrastructure like local heating networks, wastewater...

  • While the statutory planning system in many countries is regulatory, using zoning tools or other types of regulation, the system in England has historically been using a discretionary approach, using case-by-case planning applications/permissions (Booth, 1995). This had influence on planning reforms in many other countries, be it the influence of discretion and development-oriented planning in Dutch planning (Janssen-Jansen and Woltjer, 2010) or the introduction of the Urban Development Contract in the German system in the 1990s.

    The recent years have seen though a growing...

  • Over the last decades in Europe the consumption and production practices in Europe radically changed, the shift accelerated during and beyond the pandemic crisis. Direct impacts include a growing demand for logistics services and space to accommodate and support these functions. Logistics operators choose locations with a sectorial logic that permeates the organization of the system at different scales: At the large scale, there is a densification of logistics platforms and warehouses along infrastructures, forming specialized clusters connected to primary corridors for national and...

  • While the French planning system has already been studied in urban studies, the application of the norm at the level of individual authorization has never been fully grasped by scientific research. And yet, the study of discretionary power and the street-level bureaucracy has already been the subject of several studies in the sociology of public action (Belorgey, 2012). However, there is a lack of research on the implementation of urban public policies in diffuse urban planning on an operational scale. This question ties in with the need to observe the application of regulations...

  • Spatial planning is the effective control and scientific management of the national territory within the jurisdiction of a country or region government, which is crucial for achieving a balance between development and protection. This study reviews the origins and progress of China's national territory spatial planning (NTSP) reform that began in 2019, summarizes the challenges and problems, and proposes the focus of the next step of NTSP reform, in order to provide reference for achieving sustainable development of China's NTSP.

    The important measure of China's NTSP reform is...

  • Spatial planning is context sensitive because development projects are tailored to the distinct place and time. This research investigates the content and trends of real densification proposals in Swiss cities over time and space. It rests on an extensive data collection effort to create a novel dataset consisting of around 1500 local densification ballots in all of the 162 Swiss cities from 2008 to 2020. We utilized diverse sources like official ballot booklets, municipal documents, and newspaper archives and categorized them according to a strict coding system that includes information...

  • This article analyses the challenges of coordinating the interests of multiple parties in urban renewal and the institutional response through the development of local legislation on urban renewal in Beijing, using the policy mechanisms and practices of urban renewal projects in Beijing as an example. The article is divided into three main chapters: (1)defining the connotation of property rights in urban renewal and identifying the key points of legislation, (2)constructing a framework for analysing the interests of multiple parties in urban renewal, (3)and analysing the...

  • This paper explores the complexities of land management in Morocco, focusing on the shortcomings of its land tenure system and the difficulties arising from planning techniques. It examines legal, institutional, and operational frameworks, revealing how inadequate consideration of land characteristics during planning leads to significant implementation constraints. This paper delves into the legal and governance shortcomings, the programming of land across various planning levels - national sectoral, strategic territorial, and urban - and the financial and legislative challenges...

  • Questions of justice are key issues in public discourse, academic research, and policy planning. Such questions are also pertinent to participation in the field of culture and art, which is considered a fundamental right, a central determinant of well-being, and an essential form of participation in the democratic public sphere. While art and culture are progressively being recognized as integral components of urban economic development and planning (Matthews and Gadaloff, 2022), several scholars concerned with regional and local development challenges have proposed basic principles of...

  • This paper analyses one of the less visible modes of urban design and action:  The role of privately owned public spaces (known as POPS in NYC).   Behind this phenomenon – quickly growing in recent years – is a sophisticated moulding of the legal and economic context to creating POPs in specific location with specific urban function and design.  The empirical research is a comparison of POPS in New York City and Tel Aviv - two geographically distanced locations, with very different legal frameworks.  The comparative analysis shows both commonalities and differences in the legal...

  • The Indian government signed on to the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, which acknowledges participation and its role in planning for climate change mitigation in Goals 11 and 16. Literature about participation in urban planning popularly showcases the issues regarding the exclusion of poor sections of society and the work of civil society organisations in this gap. However, less literature provides an overview of the participatory processes that connect the local government with the growing urban middle-class population, allowing better social inclusion in plans while...

  • Most of us know something about cooperative housing.  But in fact, we know little, because cooperative housing in reality may imply a variety of forms of housing tenure, management, demographics, what exactly is sharing and shared, who and when is eligible, etc.

    A frequent assumption that may turn out wrong is that coop housing is a form of affordable housing.  However, the crux of coop housing is the legal format with a special type of tenure and institutional modes that rely on inter-personal cooperation as defined by legislation.

    In fact, coop housing may not be...

  • Spatial planning is critical for promoting health and well-being (Barton, 2015, p.13). Our health and well-being are determined by our ability to function positively in our private and social realms (Keys and Haidt, 2003, p.6). Nussbaum (1992, p.222) identifies two thresholds for human functioning: level one capabilities include satisfying basic needs while level two capabilities include opportunities to live a complete human life.

    Planning legislation and regulations are fundamental to shaping spaces and places in cities, playing crucial roles in developing people’s capabilities....

  • As “progressive and small scale” has become the mainstream regeneration method for residential historic areas in China, the physical form of these areas is directly affected by the uncertainties in the implementation process of the regeneration projects under the control of planning (Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, 2021). The implementation of regeneration projects needs to be realized through specific paths of value capture, including the four paths of increasing intensity, changing use, improving quality, and changing property rights (ZHAO et al., 2021).

    ...
  • Over the past 10 years, many European city governments have started to develop a variety of regulations to manage platform-mediated short-term rentals (STR), a phenomenon that became a contentious public problem. This paper presents some of the results of a research project (2016-2023) that compared the regulation of STR in 12 European cities (Amsterdam, Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris, Prague, Rome, Vienna) and will be the object of a forthcoming book (Aguilera et al. 2024). Combining the comparative sociology of multilevel urban governance, public...

  • The impacts of climate change have become increasingly noticeable in recent years. The extreme weather events of the past years were just symptoms of an ongoing crisis that continues to intensify. Storms, heatwaves, heavy rainfall, and other climate-related consequences can jeopardize constitutionally protected interests such as life, health, and property (European Commission, 2021b). The progress of climate change has reached a point where adaptation measures must be implemented to protect the interests of current and future generations (IPCC, 2022). In this regard, municipalities play...

  • The sale and redevelopment of public land are increasingly being used as tools for financing public policies and urban infrastructure (Artioli, 2021). In the realm of transportation, major public operators such as ports, airports, and railways are increasingly viewing their properties not just for service production but as assets for disposal or development to generate new income (Adisson, 2015). While the use of land as a financing tool is not novel, as demonstrated by examples in Japan (Aveline, 2003), and Hong Kong (Aveline-Dubach and Blandeau, 2019), it is gaining traction among...

  • Rapid technological advancements have occurred in the capacity to collect, store, and map information regarding land, use, ownership, and other land relations.  Spatial Data Infrastructures, and Geographic Information Systems have been constructed that record, sort, and store multiple forms of land and property data in complex, and often privately owned or managed systems.  These are made increasingly interoperable with land law and governance as Land Administration Systems (LAS). Which have become established as a crucial ‘public good infrastructure,’ and as a key component of economic...

  • The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is the national land use planning and  conservation  authority  regulating  and facilitating the physical development of Singapore. The URA seeks to achieve the twin national objectives of better utilisation of scarce prime land resources to meet a growing population and to provide for urban regeneration. Difficulties were encountered prior to 1999 as unanimous consent was required for termination of strata developments. A single recalcitrant unit owner could block a sensible collective sale or even blackmail other unit owners as the price of his...

  • John Rawls, the Western authority on justice, displayed an almost indifferent attitude towards “the ownership society” and property rights. Perhaps for this reason, most treatises on the just city ignore or downplay the issue of ownership of and in the just city (e.g., Fainstein 2010; Moroni 2020; Soja 2010).

    The question as to who owns the city has two archetypal dimensions (Table 1). The institutional dimension distinguishes private and common property. The personal dimension distinguishes between one, many, and all urban...

  • Transferable development rights (TDR) is an innovative land management tool created under the U.S. zoning system and widely applied in the preservation of historical buildings, natural resources, and agriculture land. Chinese scholars, based on China's planning and land management practices, have introduced the TDR and conducted extensive research, advocating for the establishment of a domestic trading market for land development rights. However, there are significant misunderstandings that need clarification. Firstly, the Chinese legal system, based on Continental law, follows the...

  • Aparna Soni, Bhuvaneswari Raman

    This paper traces the changes in land regulations during the last decade, to facilitate the release of land for urban development in the Indian context.  Focussing on the emerging changes to land regulations, we illustrate the shifts in the Government of India’s approach towards land, moving from a welfarist perspective to one of capturing speculative land value gains. While such shifts are observed in other contexts, the Indian story exemplifies how the regional governments influenced the mobilisation of different legal instruments and have shaped the shifts towards land development...

  • Since year 2000 the number of places of law courts is steadily dropping in most European countries. Demographic trends, new technical means of transport and communication of court users and an increased specialisation of judges are pointed out as the driving factors, which have created an entirely new judiciary map. The change can be described in terms of fewer but bigger units but may also be viewed as a fundamental questioning of geography as the organising principle, and thereby of the court as a place rooted in and defined by its local context. To fulfil the citizens’ right...

  • Zoning guidelines are technical methods commonly employed in various types of urban planning, including comprehensive urban design, landscape planning, regulatory detailed planning, and architectural features and styles planning. The purpose of these guidelines is to protect and shape the unique character of urban landscapes, providing control and guidance over the spatial forms of specific urban districts. When different types of zoning guidelines, with their varied control levels and focus areas, are compiled without proper distinction, it can lead to redundancy, lack of coherence, and...

  • Planning for just and sustainable urban regions also calls for attention to the interaction between urban and rural regions. City dwellers will often seek refuge outside the city for leisure and recreation. Even though the focus might be on nature and recreational areas, our agricultural area has a great contribution and potential as well. An area created by the age-old land-use interaction and food supply, landscape management and planning is strongly connected to the urban area in function and appearance.

    Rural agricultural areas are currently under pressure in Europe, as shown...

  • In recent decades, tourist and recreational activities have brought major financial and social significance to coastal zones, accompanied by escalating property values and demand for development. A recent publication has documented that in the majority of the fifteen Global North studied countries(1), coastal zones benefit from specially high restrictions on planning development (Alterman and Pellach, 2020). Our research hypothesis is that coastal zones, even in advanced-economy countries, encounter higher planning restriction, higher development pressure and equally ineffective...

  • After several decades of inaction, climate change laws are finally heating up. Public law decision-making processes, including environmental, infrastructure, urban planning and other administrative approvals, will substantially determine how societies respond to climate change. In the US, the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act opened the floodgates on billions of dollars in federal funding. Attention is now shifting to accelerating environmental approval processes, among other legal pathways to decarbonisation in the US. For example, the 2023 Fiscal Responsibility Act...

  • As part of the research agenda opened by Halpern et al., (2014) on the instrumentation of environmental public action in France, we draw on several observations. Firstly, (i) town planning and public utility easements are instruments of public land policy that "are no longer confined to traditional neighbourhood relations" (Grimonprez, 2012) and can be used by managers to deal with natural (flooding: Fournier et al., 2021) or industrial (Martinais, 2010) risks. Secondly, (ii) research into the land and property activities of transport managers (Adisson, 2015; Magnan, 2016) has paid...

TRACK 04: BORDERS

  • Since the mid-1960s, and more permanently following the armed conflict of 1974, the island of Cyprus and its capital city, Nicosia, have been separated by the UN-controlled "Green Line," a physical buffer zone dividing the Greek Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot communities. Due to its disputed and uncertain status, the Green Line is regarded as one of the most vulnerable and "marginal" areas in Cyprus and Nicosia. At the urban level, the spaces and neighborhoods along the buffer zone, once a lively interface among various communities, now serve as tangible reminders of the division while...

  • The relation between different governing levels of urban and regional planning is complex. The perceived lack of interaction between the different levels (such as transnational, national, regional, city-regional, municipal) may lead to contested interests and value differences that are not explicitly acknowledged in the practice of planning. In the Nordic context, the relationships between the national, regional and local levels are an important niche to explore (Schmitt & Smas, 2018) due to their formal role in translating transnational commitments (EU, Nordic and Baltic agreements)...

  • State-power participation is a significant symptom of cross-jurisdictional planning and governance in China (Li and Wu, 2012; Yeh and Chen, 2020). The academic debate on this topic shows a bias towards discussion in a given stage rather than from a historical perspective (Salder, 2020), and towards macro policy-making analyses rather than empirical studies at the local level (Luo and Shen, 2009). Have the objectives, tasks, or approaches to regional planning changed in China? If so, how have these changes been realized at the macro and micro levels? Can we see a recentralization of the...

  • Donato Casavola, Giancarlo Cotella, Umberto Janin Rivolin, Elisabetta Vitale Brovarone

    In the last 40 years, new territorial configurations have emerged in Europe as a consequence of the consolidation of complex spatial relations between core urban centres and their suburbs. Whereas overall agreement exists on the relevance of these metropolitan phenomena, their conceptual delimitation and governance is subject to debate (Zimmermann et al., 2020). On the one hand, methodologies to define and compare metropolitan spaces have been developed, conceptualising them as characterised by densely inhabited urban cores and less-populated municipalities whose labour market is highly...

  • Considerable institutional and cultural settings have shaped spatial planning systems with comparable features; however, such systems have been adapted to specific cultural, normative, and spatial conditions. Previous research on planning cultures demonstrates that in view of existing challenges for planning there might be planning cultures that are not constituted by geographic entities (nations, regions, cities), but also by topics framed by specific planning tasks. This could open up a new research field of ‘topical planning cultures’ (Pallagst et al 2021).

    The cross-border...

  • This contribution derives from collaborative efforts in academic research and teaching at Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DAStU), focusing on the socio-spatial regeneration of fragile mountain regions.

    In the European context, mountain regions face multiple challenges, including climate and ecological crises, depopulation, abandonment of the built heritage and landscapes, and depletion of natural resources. These challenges often exceed traditional administrative boundaries, institutional...

  • Regional planning in China is usually formulated by higher-level governments and consists of multiple cities that reflect national strategies from top to bottom. In addition, scholars have conducted a number of studies using big data such as phone signals and investments in regions to obtain dynamic socio-economic networks from bottom to top. However, there is still a lack of perspectives based on local governments at the meso level, which are not only transmitters of higher-level planning, but also aggregators of micro subjects' needs. Competition and co-operation between cities in the...

  • Based on UN projections, another 2.5 billion people will be housed in the world's urban and peri-urban regions by 2050 (UN, 2019). Urban expansion is the principal mechanism by which cities accommodate this population growth. A recent study indicates that between 1990 and 2014, in a global sample of 200 cities, 23% of the population increase was accommodated through the densification of existing footprints, while 77% occurred in newly expanded areas (Angel et al., 2021). Peri-urban areas, as "sites on the urban periphery into which cities expand, "have enormous potential to enhance urban...

  • According to various thinkers, the Anthropocene paradigm represents a scenario of large-scale catastrophic change for human societies. Beck (2016) links this to the idea of the metamorphosis of the world. For this author, it is not only a question of considering the negative consequences of the changes that the planet is undergoing, but also the emancipating forces that will allow human societies to rethink some of the central assumptions for decision-making in the face of planetary challenges.

    In this sense, if there is one central assumption that needs to be rethought,...

  • Cross-border regions (CBRs) have been the subject of political science and spatial research in Europe for many years (Decoville and Durand 2021). A central research question is what effects national borders have on border regions. This involves examining whether national borders have a negative border effect on the neighbouring sub-regions of the various nation-states.

    This presentation focusses on cross-border cultural interdependencies in European border regions. Cultural networks are recorded based on organisational networks cultural and community centres as well as...

  • Sylwia Dołzbłasz, Andrzej Raczyk, Anna Grochowska

    The objective of this study was to identify patterns in the formation of cross-border cooperation in the Polish borderlands, specifically within the context of transborder functional regions. The diverse nature of the analyzed borderlands, influenced by factors such as, among others, the functions of internal and external Schengen zone borders, natural and socio-economic features, allowed for an examination of the impact of conditions on the characteristics of cooperation. Particular attention was given to the spatial distribution of cross-border cooperation, including the influence of...

  • Planning systems, territorial policies, governance models and administrative structures are alterable and change over the years as they need to be updated and coherent to respond to complex and uncertain challenges, particularly within the urban environment. In this process, a range of concepts and approaches are constantly created, adapted and revised; for example, "From government to governance", the mix of top-down and bottom-up approaches, multi-level governance, social cohesion relevance, integrated regional planning, participatory processes, and...

  • 1. Geographical context

    The geographical definition of the territory we aim to treat in our research can be understood through four different types of limits. Two of them, physically equivalent, correspond to the deltas of the Ebro river (South), and the Rhône (North).

    Dividing this 600 km. coast line, the Pyrénées come to reach the sea as a physical barrier, and establish, at its watershed, the administrative border between both countries. In its depth, the limits become more diffuse, but can be assimilated to a homogeneous...

  • This comprehensive study, titled "Research on Cross-Boundary Integration Development in the Hengqin Guangdong-Macao In-Depth Cooperation Zone," explores the intricate dynamics of cross-boundary integration within the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. It especially focuses on the Hengqin region's distinct border characteristics, which represent a dual nature of both geographical demarcation and systemic transition. This aspect makes Hengqin a prime example of "cross-boundary, cross-system" integration. The research unfolds across four key sections: the background and rationale...

  • The paper introduces and discusses initial research findings from the "Italian Borderscapes After 2020" project, a two-year initiative supported by the European Union – NextGenerationEU and the Italian Ministry of University and Research. The project seeks to explore the challenges faced by Italian border areas in the wake of various crises, encompassing socio-economic, humanitarian, ecological, and health-related issues, notably the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Rather than characterizing these regions only as "border areas" or "peripheries," the paper adopts the term "borderscapes" to...

  • Modern urban regions’ development has seen a new stage of the deepening and restructuring of the spatial division of labor -  functions at the two ends of the value chain have become more concentrated in high-level cities, while manufacturing has been gradually dispersed and relocated to surrounding small(medium)-sized cities, which, in turn, will influence the central cities after the formation of new agglomerations on the periphery. Yet this is not necessarily a spatial gradient of dispersion, as periphery-core linkages across geographical and administrative boundaries may be formed....

  • Both Shanghai and Lombardy Region are metropolitan district with vast rural areas on the periphery. They provide a solid condition for agricultural development and have natural environments conducive to rural tourism. While the planning systems in Shanghai and Lombardy Metropolitan Region differ, both generally use administrative boundaries as the scope of planning. Due to the spatial characteristics of the contiguous rural areas, this often becomes obstacle for further integrated development.

    At the planning level, both regions have explored integration or cooperation mechanism...

  • Export-oriented zone is a type of special economic region that are more broadly defined in the era of economic globalization. By establishing export-oriented zones, many developing countries participate in global industrial division of labor and initiated regional economic development through some policy measures such as foreign investment and market-oriented reforms, thereby promoting the improvement and innovation of macroeconomic institution. A large number of urban researchers have conducted research on export-oriented zones. Compared to the conceptual framework of urban...

  • This study, based on the migration trajectories of 468 representative manufacturing leading enterprises in nine prefecture-level cities in the Pearl River Delta region (Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen) since 2000, employs spatial econometric and social network analysis techniques to analyze the overall spatial patterns, key migration regions, and typical cases of manufacturing enterprise migration. It attempts to explain whether various administrative boundaries have influenced the relocation and siting choices of enterprises. The...

  • Under the wave of globalization, certain megacities in China are undergoing or have already undergone post-suburbanization. In contrast to the United States, where "edge cities" were primarily driven by market forces and developers, the development of towns on the outskirts of China's metropolises has been largely influenced by the government. Despite China's unique administrative system, which prioritizes resources for the higher-ranking central city, towns on the Shanghai metropolitan area have recently absorbed functional spillovers from the central city, encompassing industry,...

  • This contribution presents a conceptual framework for studying city-regional integration processes in spatial planning, amidst the ongoing urbanization phenomenon reshaping cities and creating intricate interdependencies with suburban and rural areas as they extend beyond administrative boundaries. This trend, evident across OECD countries, is characterized by institutional fragmentation where various local authorities govern small portions of the urban territory. This results in a fundamental challenge for spatial planning: How to manage growth in a context where the spatial dimension...

  • As the development of globalization and regionalization enters a new stage, the city has become the main body of resources integration and the basic unit of driving both development and competition, with its spatial form transforming from a single city to an urban region. In 2017, the "Shanghai Master Plan 2017-2035" formally put forward the brand-new objective of building Shanghai into an "excellent global city", meanwhile calling for carrying important national strategies and requirements through metropolitan areas from a regional perspective. Five years from then, the "Spatial...

  • For many years, research has stressed the potential of regional planning to mediate between different issue- and sectoral-based interests. It is argued that the regional scale is appropriate to pursue horizontal and vertical coordination of differently positioned actors in view of the exploitation of land for housing, transport, industry and agriculture versus protection of biological diversity, cultural heritage and climate change adaptation measures, for instance (Frank and Marsden, 2016). Also, regions may offer a ‘good spatial fit’ to incorporate a number of socio-economic,...

  • Urban regions are the functional spaces of a society’s everyday life, work, mobility, and leisure. Urban centres and hinterland regions are combined through manifold interactions which constantly cross administrative borders and connect different places. Yet, when the Covid-19 pandemic started in Europe in early 2020, much of the societal life came to a halt due to public restrictions and lock-downs. Advantages and amenities of urban regions turned into the opposite. Dense urban areas lost their advantages of diversity, culture, and internationality. The importance of nearby green spaces...

  • Metropolitan area planning serves as a crucial tool for fostering competitiveness and sustainable development. As urbanization accelerates in China, the establishment of metropolitan areas has become a fundamental and strategic priority. Since 2019, the central state has presented metropolitan areas as a new specific type of spatial entity to establish a coordinated urban system. The current metropolitan area planning is being intensively formulated, but it also faces various challenges, including the coexistence of multiple planning types, overlapping planning contents, and unclear...

  • The present research study investigates land readjustment practices within the framework of historical institutionalism and critical junctures. Critical junctures focus on changes and the long-term causal effect or historical legacy of these changes. Land readjustment is a legally binding instrument used to reorganize property ownership and increase public spaces. Organized by the government or implementation agencies, land owners are requested to contribute part of their land in exchange for registration and provision of infrastructure. Landowners are willing to bear the project...

  • Integrated river basin management (IRBM) is important to promote sustainable development. In China, the transforming spatial planning system has focused on coordinating the relationships between river basin management and urban development, and the boundaries between river basins and administrative regions. This study presents the results of a research project that examined the emerging relationship between the river basin management policies and the urban spatial planning system in China. Using interpretive policy analysis, this research assesses how river basin management and urban...

  • Transit-oriented Development (TOD) is pictured as a pivotal strategy to accommodate growth while ending car dependency in metropolitan areas (Newman and Kenworthy, 2015). However, prevailing TOD research is often embedded in normative and progressive assumptions, failing to address the complexity of the model's impact in asymmetrical city regions (Qviström et al., 2019). Simultaneously, as traditional borders transform within the EU, borders' unconventional social, political, and economic roles are underscored, including in their intricate relationship...

  • At present, China's urbanization rate has exceeded 60%. With the spillover of the functions of megacities, administrative boundaries tend to be blurred, and cross-domain governance faces challenges. In this context, the Chinese government regards coordinated regional development as an important national strategy. China's major cities, including Shanghai, view metropolitan areas as essential in planning urban development strategies. As a critical network supporting the development of megacities and regions, the goal of rail transit has shifted from supporting urban development to...

  • It is hypothesized that the integrated planning and implementation of megaproject-associated urban development or mega-region would improve the decision making in megaprojects by restricting scope, and hence, cost and time overrun, and there will be mutual economic, environmental, social and institutional sustainability. A recent study by John Landis (ed. book published in 2021) argues that megaprojects are ‘natural fit’ for megacities. In terms of components, with the aim of improving decision-making in megaprojects and improving mutual sustainability, the study will look into physical...

  • In the contemporary era, the evolving transport sector is establishing a new transport political economy fuelled by investments from diverse global business sectors that have not traditionally been involved in transport supply.  International agencies gradually occupy a dominant role in leading transport transitions. Sitting at the intersection of the rise of China as a global power and China’s growing role in global transport infrastructure and service provision, the changes in bilateral relations present a critical social, environmental, and geopolitical...

TRACK 05: MOBILITY

  • Hue-Tam Jamme, Deborah Salon, Nicole Corcoran, Rababe Saadaoui

    The automobile is a technological invention that revolutionized the way people move, work, shop, and relate to each other. Private car ownership and mass adoption of the car-centric lifestyle, starting in Europe and North America and then expanding to the rest of the world, have led to the most inequitable and unsustainable urban forms, economies, and societies. Reversing these trends is a tremendous challenge. Despite its social, economic, and environmental costs, the private automobile continues to attract people because of its comfort, convenience, and status symbol. Yet, shifting...

  • The persistence of the automobility paradigm is among the top concerns in the discussion on transitioning to sustainable transport. Many studies have identified policy instruments needed to facilitate this transition. However not much is understood about the role of micro-level changes in policy calibrations in shaping instrument preferences during implementation and the pattern of policy change. To contribute to this research gap, this paper examines a case study of transport policies development for sustainable mobility transition in the city of Espoo, Finland. The period from...

  • The sudden transition from central planning to a free market in Eastern Bloc countries caused uncoordinated and deregulated growth followed by sheer car ownership. Extensive suburban areas heavily dependent on cars exploded around larger cities (Stanilov and Sýkora 2014). Nowadays, ongoing climate changes, technological revolution, and planned energetic transition bring entirely new challenges to urban transport planning (Shakibamanesh et al. 2020). Such challenges also draw attention to the question of car dependency in the Czech planning practice. In response, Czech local plans started...

  • Integrating urban and transport planning is strongly supported by the literature as the basis for sustainable city planning (Bertolini, le Clercq and Kapoen, 2005). An approach that can be manifest in various ways, from transit-oriented development (TOD) to community involvement in traffic calming measures. A theme shared by both technic disciplines is the transit stop. In the urban planning field, positioning and designing a stop involve aspects such as land uses and settlement structures. In the transportation field, the stop is considered an essential element as it constitutes the...

  • After decades of marginalization in transportation policy and infrastructure design, a growing consensus on urban cycling as a central element of transitions to sustainable mobility systems has informed efforts by city governments to improve conditions and stimulate modal shift. Nonetheless, and despite widespread reference to ‘model’ cycling cities, processes of infrastructural reconfiguration for cycling have proven complex and contested. In seeking to overcome institutional inertia, the obdurate material legacies of car-centric transport planning, and entrenched social and political...

  • The commercial space in the high-speed railway station area is a key factor in stimulating the vitality of the crowd in the station area, and the station complex can maximally convert the transport value of the station area into comprehensive functional value. In the era of ordinary railways, the high-speed railway station was only regarded as a passenger transport hub. The commercial space was only used as a supporting facility to serve the transport interchange activities, which failed to attract the crowd to stay for long. Still, with the gradual increase in the proportion of...

  • China has built the most extensive high-speed rail (HSR) network in the world over the past decades. To leverage the accessibility benefits of HSR, numerous HSR new towns have been initiated around newly constructed HSR stations. The primary objective of HSR new town is to facilitate economic growth and contribute to the ongoing urbanisation. Notably, only 32% of HSR stations are located in existing urban agglomerations (Loo and Huang, 2023), highlighting the critical role played by the land development patterns of HSR new towns in shaping China’s urban landscape.

    Although...

  • Capucine-Marin Dubroca-Voisin, Guillaume Chauvet, Mina Roncière, Fanny Chevalier, Dounia Idorane, Baptiste Frioux, Matthieu Goudeau

    France is finally going for it: the SERM (express regional and metropolitan services) are to be launched and radically improve mobility possibilities around at least ten French metropolises outside of Paris. By providing a frequent, simple train service with an extended time-range, public authorities want to provoke a massive modal shift to trains, with the overarching goal of reducing the environmental impact of mobility.

  • Private sector players are bringing new forms of transport mobility to cities (Stone et al, 2018) in the form of micro-mobility, mobility as a service, connected automated vehicles and electric vehicles. Taken together, those new mobilities possess the potential to reduce automobility (Urry, 2004) where they play a part in the public transport mix. However, research (Legacy et al, 2019) has noted that transport planners are being  required to adapt to the technology instead of shaping the technology to serve sustainable outcomes.

    This paper investigates the experience of three...

  • Mario Paris, Catherine Dezio, Silvia Marchesini, Edmondo Pietrangeli

    Nowadays, transportation infrastructures (roads and railways) play a significant role in national economic development. Still, it is also one of the sectors that stress the socio-ecological systems of periurban and rural areas at the local scale. The design principles of major linear infrastructures often do not consider the impacts on ecosystems and social networks, and they prioritize the speed and economy of implementation, the efficiency in managing supra-local flows, and the activation of investment opportunities. In addition, their presence is a driver for new investments and...

  • Micro-mobility, epitomized by bicycles and other lightweight, low-speed vehicles, plays a pivotal role in enhancing urban mobility and offers a sustainable alternative to conventional transportation modes. A comprehensive understanding of such mobility and its spatial underpinnings is crucial for delving deeper into urban phenomena. Existing research on urban mobility has revealed a striking finding: the existence of scaling laws in urban mobility. While established studies have focused on the general displacement of urban mobility, the analysis of mobility for specific travel modes has...

  • Problem Statement:

    Contemporary urban challenges such as health issues, air pollution, climate change, and space scarcity (Pogačar and Šenk, 2021; Mela and Girardi, 2022) necessitate a shift in the future of urban mobility towards active modes of transport. However, despite the evident benefits, many cities worldwide remain entrenched in a car-oriented mobility culture (Koszowski et al., 2019). To dive deeper into the constraints of increasing active modes’ share in cities, this research focuses on the human-environment interactions in walking and...

  • The governance schemes that govern interactions between public transport and micromobility stakeholders are critical variables in the successful implementation of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) systems. Like the dynamics of regional governance, planning, and development, MaaS is the theater of the superposition of a multitude of often divergent, even contradictory interests (Alyavina, Nikitas and Njoya 2022; Polydoropoulou, Pagoni and Tsirimpa 2020; Pritchard 2022) of:

    • local and regional governments (e.g., reducing congestion, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions);...
  • Promoting sustainable mobility is crucial for decarbonising cities and facilitating citizens' access to economic opportunities, education, healthcare, and social activities (Banister, 2008; Pangbourne and Anable, 2011). The bicycle, alone or associated with public transport, can be a helpful tool to address climate change and support sustainable and inclusive urban development (Pucher et al., 1999; Sagaris, 2021). Likewise, the co-development of equitable cycling plans, based on an open dialogue between planning practitioners, citizens, and coalitions, may enable transformative change to...

  • Cities can help citizens make environmentally-friendly choices by making those choices more convenient and less burdensome. They can also encourage changes in social behavior to promote low-carbon practices. Behavioral change is seen as a strategy to address emission reduction targets, and policy instruments are considered crucial for achieving these changes. The importance of policy shifts has been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2022) and academic research. However, challenges remain in reducing emissions, especially in the transport sector where private...

  • E-bikes have become the preferred mode of transportation for many individuals, particularly for commuting purposes. E-bikes emerge as a pathway for both efficient and more sustainable transportation mode compared to cars (Fishman and Cherry, 2016). E-bike have a travel range that can exceed 13 kilometers, which is considerably greater than the average range of 5 kilometers for traditional bicycles. (Lopez et al., 2017).

    While traveling on e-bikes, many people also perform moderate-intensity physical activity (de Haas et al., 2022). For these reasons, it possesses a higher tendency...

  • Freddy Nogueira, Dr. Filipe Moura, Dr. Ana Morais de Sá

    The urban environment undergoes constant evolution, and urban experimentation emerges as a nimble and cost-effective alternative to swiftly transform dynamics, yielding significant benefits across various domains, particularly in enhancing public space’s quality and facilitating micromobility. The study aims to comprehensively explore the multifaceted aspects of this innovative approach, shedding light on the motivations driving its adoption, the barriers encountered in its implementation, and the intricate dynamics among diverse stakeholders.

    Cities, throughout history, have...

  • Sandra Treija, Alisa Koroļova, Uģis Bratuškins, Andrew Sonta, Stefanie Rößler, Robert Hecht, Melinda Benkő, Thomas Verbeek, Elena Dimitrova

    The transition towards sustainability is requiring changes in almost every aspect of our lives – from the operation of globalised supply chains to the behaviour of individual citizens. The transport system is one of the areas where major change still needs to happen. Sustainable mobility intends to reduce the need to travel (particularly by car), encourage greater use of public transport, walking, and cycling, improve the accessibility of transportation, and reduce travel distances. The key here is to provide quality, with easy access to local services and facilities, so that people do...

  • Background and Objectives

    This study proposes a new method using daily mobility data in order to redefine neighborhood boundaries, reflecting residents’ actual travel patterns. Inspired by the '15-Minute City' concept, which focuses on creating accessible zones based on travel time, this approach seeks to transform urban planning by aligning neighborhood planning with actual mobility patterns. We aim to apply this methodology to Seoul's existing Neighborhood Plan, which is segmented into 116 zones based on population size, to assess potential new area...

  • The 15-minutes city concept highlights the importance of putting proximity back at the heart of planning approaches, in order to focus accessibility to the amenities needed for daily life around short distances and encourage walking (Büttner et al. 2022). This concept, which has gained considerable momentum among politicians and academics, has important elements that need to be introduced or reaffirmed among operational urban planners. As well as reflecting important issues of spatial justice, the concept of the x-minute territory requires an exhaustive reflection on the relationship...

  • The 15-minute city is an urban planning concept that envisions neighbourhoods where residents can access most of their daily needs, such as work, shopping and leisure activities, within a 15-minute walk or bike ride from their homes (Moreno et al., 2021). Dense, socially connected and functionally mixed neighbourhoods are key aspects of 15-minute cities, supporting human-scale urban design and encouraging active transportation (Khavarian-Garmsir et al., 2023). Based on the idea of chrono-urbanism, the 15-minute city concept considers proximity in terms of both time and space, focusing on...

  • Emerging 15m cities prioritize sustainable urban planning combining public transport, cycling, and walking to encourage a mobility behavior shift from private car to sustainable modes. Scenario building enables envisioning new futures with radical changes in planning policies, when continuing the current trends, no longer suffice2.  Scenario building enables to design mobility policies accommodating middle-out actors to foster non-traditional thinking2,3,4,5. Facilitating processes are proposed as pathways1 (Auvinen and Tuominen, 2014). System barriers...

  • In recent years, the 15-minute city model, crystallise by Carlos Moreno (Moreno et al., 2021) has gained increasing attention as a model in urban planning and design; it aims to create cities and neighbourhoods where residents have access to basic services within a 15-minute walk or bike ride from their homes. This concept is particularly relevant in the context of ageing societies, where the needs of older adults must be carefully considered to ensure accessibility and inclusivity. The implications of ageing societies are becoming wide and complex, affecting...

  • The '15-Minute City' is an urban planning concept that seeks to ensure that all essential human needs are within a 15-minute walking or cycling distance (Khavarian-Garmsir et al., 2022). Since it was coined by Carlos Moreno in 2016 (Moreno, 2016) and adopted by the Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo in her 2020 re-election campaign, the concept has received widespread attention among policymakers and academics (Moreno et al., 2021). However, the concept has also received criticism, not the least from the perspective of transport justice (Pozoukidou and Chatziyiannaki, 2021,...

  • Giovanni Fusco, Meta Berghauser Pont, Valerio Cutini, Angelika Psenner

    Developing a 15-minute City (15mC) is a new planning strategy for affordable and sustainable mobility. Through pedestrian-based proximity, inhabitants and city users should be able to walk to destinations catering to most of their daily needs (Moreno et al. 2021, EIT Urban Mobility 2022). Compact European urban cores have already implemented 15mC solutions with some success, as in Paris and Barcelona. However, the implementation of the 15mC is much harder in post-war car-dependent outskirts and suburbs, lacking some of its key morphological pre-conditions: centrality, density, proximity...

  • Following post war suburbanisation, in many European regions new regional centres have been developed on peripheral locations near highway exits. They host a range of regional functions like retail, educational campuses, leisure and health care, attracting many visitors. However, in many ways they are the opposite of city centres:  Monofunctional, dominated by parking lots and not accessible by public transport.  This has caused a growing mismatch between the economic system and the rail system, traditionally the backbone of regional transport. In the selected case of South-Limburg,...

  • Since its introduction in 2015 at COP21 in Paris the 15-Minutes City (ville du quart d’heure) has been widely discussed and has become quite popular even outside the academic and professional debate. Since then its promoter, Carlos Moreno, and his team of Chaire ETI at Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne have further elaborated the concept.

    Moreno conceived the concept as a response to the key climate and health issues imposed on cities and territories by the multiple crises of our time such as climate change or global pandemics...

  • Mitigating climate change is an urgent challenge. Urban transport systems are major emitters of greenhouse gases, so decarbonising their operation is vital for achieving net zero emissions by 2050. By increasing travel demand in host countries, the Olympic and Paralympic Games, one of the largest mega-events in the world, tend to exacerbate the problem of transport emissions.  The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is now committed to delivering climate-positive Games from 2030. As a result, the IOC’s new targets bind future host cities to provide more sustainable solutions, including...

  •  The TOD (Transit-Oriented Development) model, originating in the 1990s from the New Urbanism in the United States, is a transit-oriented model based on high-density, diverse, and livable design that contributes to a functionally balanced and dynamic community environment. Since its inception, the TOD model has found widespread application globally, adapting to diverse social, cultural, and institutional contexts. In Europe, cities like Amsterdam and Copenhagen have embraced this model. Asian countries such as Singapore and China have also joined the trend over the past decade. In...

  • Transit-oriented development consists in a dense, diversified and pedestrian and bike-friendly real estate development located in walking distance of public transit stations. Recent data shows that the relationship between increased transit ridership and the reduction of total kilometers traveled by T.O.D. residents is not a direct one, wherein higher-income households are reducing their total kilometers traveled more so than lower-income households, but lower-income households tend to increase their utilization of public transit more than higher-income households (Boarnet et al. 2017)....

  • Dandan Xu, Xiaodong Zhang, Ling Li, Liang Wang, Xuehua Han, Min Zhang

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) has significant advantages such as increased economic efficiency, reduced carbon emissions, and improved urban accessibility due to its intensive development pattern. A typology study of TOD is helpful for targeted development management. In this study, a typology model of "node-place-slow travel guidance" is proposed, taking into account the development requirements of the dimension of "walking and biking (slow travel) mobility". The empirical study is carried out in Beijing as an example, and based on the K-means plus algorithm, the subway station...

  • Both in a UK and an international context, London has frequently pioneered innovative approaches to transport policy throughout its history. From the world’s first underground railway in 1863 to the introduction of central area congestion charging in the 2000s, such innovations have typically addressed development pressures and spatial constraints that manifested sooner and more drastically in London than in smaller and perhaps slower-growing peer cities elsewhere in Europe. Simultaneously, this local evolutionary edge in transport planning has long coexisted uneasily with a national...

  • The increasing reliance on cars worsens problems such as traffic jams, time wasted in transit, challenges in finding parking, and financial burdens. Additionally, urban functions and daily activities are spreading out more, leading to a rise in dependence on cars. Consequently, this diminishes the appeal and flexibility of active mobility and public transportation compared to private vehicles (Mattioli et al., 2020). However, the positive impacts of active mobility on human health and quality of life (Anokye et al., 2012) have encouraged governments to adopt policies that shift from...

  • The rapid urbanization has led to the deterioration of traditional urban fabric and resulted in the loss of historical identity. Due to the dominance of contemporary architecture and modern urban practices, traditional urban fabric is barely perceptible, and historical buildings are less noticeable. Both new development areas and historical city centers lack human-scale design. With the increase in traffic -and its negative consequences regarding accessibility and pedestrian circulation-, and the change in the forms and functions of historical buildings, historical areas are losing their...

  • David Chapman, Finn Nilson, David Lindelow, Glenn Berggård, Charlotta Johansson

    Despite the key role of walking in achieving the compact and 15-minute city, improving public health and reaching sustainability goals, walking 'as a mode of transport' is often overlooked in the transport planning discourse (Johansson et al., 2022; 2023). Today, most emphasis is placed on either motorised transport or transport modes such as cycling, regardless of whether the focus is on city planning, logistics or safety. As a consequence, pedestrian injuries account for an increasing share of road traffic injuries in high income countries and motorised transport continues to...

  • Since our society navigates through green and digital transitions, urban mobility becomes a critical focal point for change (Schipper et al, 2020). This paradigm shift significantly influences not only behavioural patterns and transportation modes, but also the formulation of urban planning policies (Van Acker et al, 2016). The exponential rise in urban population necessitates a heightened emphasis on sustainable urban mobility, as current transportation systems heavily reliant on automobiles contribute to adverse environmental effects, health concerns, and a scarcity of high-quality...

  • Noriko Otsuka, Anna-Lena van der Vlugt, Janina Welsch, Katrin Lättman, Jonas De Vos, Edward Prichard

    This paper presents the overall results from the EU-JPI funded project, WalkUrban, which aims to promote urban walkability and reconsider the prioritisation of public space use by different modes of transport. In relation to the 15-minute city concept, the potential role of walking in reducing car dependency and shaping sustainable neighbourhoods has been discussed in previous studies. However, the allocation of public space for pedestrians is generally limited compared to extensive space for vehicles, as walking is still not well recognised as a single mode of transport and taken for...

  • In recent years, Japan has experienced a rapid aging society with a declining birthrate, and there has also been a growing interest in the concept of 15-minute cities, which the proximity to urban amenities is concerned. In the planning and development of future cities, pedestrian accessibility has increasingly been prioritized. To deal with the needs towards the ageing society, it is important to develop urban environments that focus on the lifestyles and health promotion of the elderly.

    In Japan, however, there are still few studies on the walkability of the elderly, while a lot...

  • In the last thirty years, the literature coined Walkability as an index measured through attributes of the built environment and walking behaviour (Frank et al., 2010; Fonseca et al., 2022). Recently, planning-oriented research acknowledges the interdisciplinarity of Walkability and incorporates its measurable variables as indicators addressing policies toward sustainable and healthy cities (Giles-Corti et al., 2022). However, Walkability has not been substantially promoted explicitly in a single policy, but mainly implicitly through...

  • This study investigates public opinion towards the envisioned urban strategy “E-Bike City” that aims to reallocate half of street space to active mobility modes, public transportation, and public spaces. The research, formulated as an assessment of a hypothetical strategy, employs a vignette-based survey experiment within a sample of approximately 6,500 participants from a Swiss national panel survey. The focus is on understanding the individual drivers of public opinion regarding this urban strategy.

    A significant component of the study is the examination of sociodemographic...

  • The urban transport sector is facing transformational challenges in order to reduce motorized private transport and meet climate and livability goals. This includes technological advances such as the conversion from combustion vehicles to e-mobility with decarbonized energy sources and the radical reorganization of living and moving around in our cities. For the success of the mobility transition, public acceptance is of central importance. While the acceptance and the associated use of new forms of mobility at a technological level, such as the acceptance of...

  • The rise in harmful greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation, especially road traffic, is a significant environmental concern. In Austria, the transportation sector poses a big challenge for the environment, contributing to about 30% of the total GHG emissions in 2019 (Anderl et al., 2020) and increased emissions since 1990. Beyond just emissions, the conversation on sustainable transport must include historic developments, how our society and economy have transformed due to the widespread use of cars in the 20th century.

    Although some academics still promote solely...

  • The evolution of urban landscapes is witnessing a profound shift in the allocation of street space as cities worldwide prioritize inclusivity over vehicular dominance. This suggests the emergence of an era where streets transcend mere conduits for traffic, embracing a role as vibrant hubs fostering community engagement, social interaction, and well-being. Central to this transformation is the recognition that streets play a vital role in urban life, where cultural, social, and economic activities come together to shape the fabric of communities.

    These paradigm, policy and practice...

  • In the realm of urban development, strategies like superblocks have risen to prominence for fostering sustainable cities. Yet, their deployment has elicited a wide array of responses, from enthusiastic approval to strong disapproval. This research delves into the complex effects of superblocks, with a special focus on their reception and the repercussions for the initiating political entity, Barcelona en Comú, in the locales of their application.

    Superblocks aim to cultivate sustainable, close-knit living spaces but have stirred both support and controversy, mirroring the debate...

  • Over the past three decades, there has been a growing focus on the environmental impact of sport mega-events, prompting organizers to take corrective measures, as exemplified by initiatives such as the IOC Agenda 2020. Acknowledging that inadequately designed venues can have enduring local repercussions on the environment and landscape, particularly in the context of winter sports dependent on specific environmental conditions (e.g., mountainous areas, snow, frozen lakes), the paper explores the nexus between mega-events and their local contexts. Climate change...

  • A rich body of research has been done on the many types of contemporary diffuse cities around the world (Barcelloni Corte and Viganò 2022), whose specific characteristics arise through specific geographic, but also social, technical, and political factors. The Liège-Aachen metropolitan axis is such an example of diffuse city, sharing common geography, culture, and history.

    The Liège-Aachen metropolitan axis fits on many aspects within the research lineage on the diffuse city but sets itself apart from neighbouring western European examples in several ways. Firstly, it lies both at...

  • Since the 1970s, exceptional situations have been repeated in rapid succession and have plunged us into a long climate, environmental, energy and health crisis that also affects institutions, professions and the modern project itself (Doglio: 2021). "Being in crisis" requires a rethinking of intervention methods: we must not limit ourselves to not limit themselves to temporarily remedying the most acute effects, but rather must do justice to this permanent state of crisis (Reckwitz: 2022).

    If certain functions...

  • The mobility services available in the residential area play a key role in determining mobility behaviour, especially since around 80 percent of everyday journeys start or end at the place of residence. If residents are to switch from motorized individual transport to more sustainable transport in the future, attractive alternative mobility services have to be offered in the area of housing, e.g. by setting up car or bike sharing services in housing estates, platforms for carpooling, providing tickets for public transport, etc. Especially enforcing the integration of car sharing services...

  • While metropolises are regarded as epicentres of innovation and change, most Europeans do not live in large cities but in various small and medium-sized cities and settlement types.  An effective transport transition must therefore also develop solutions for the challenges of the transport system outside metropolitan areas. Focusing on the specific framework conditions and challenges of small and medium-sized cities can help to emphasize the specific transformation potential of small and medium-sized cities and can contribute to leveraging their potential.

     Small and medium-sized...

  • A high level of integration of public transport services in terms of scheduling, ticketing, and cross-operator data provision and others is crucial to provide a high level of service to potential users. Transport integration issues are a growing need as transport providers consider low cost ways of increasing ridership following the travel pattern disruptions exacerbated by the recent pandemic.

    Particularly in Europe, there has been increasing privatization of services, which are tendered to private operators that bid in a...

  • Recognizing streets as social spaces, urban planners in recent years aim to reposition pedestrians at the forefront of city design, challenging decades of car-centric urban planning (Salazar Miranda et al., 2021). One result is the increasing interest in the interplay between walking and the built environment among scholars and practitioners striving to foster sustainable transportation and cultivate healthy urban communities globally (Yencha, 2019). However, while pedestrians interact closely with the street environment, walkability assessments to this date have predominantly operated...

  • The "Athens Charter" mentions that "transportation" plays a crucial role in connecting dwelling, work, and recreation (use of leisure time). However, the current development of car-based transportation has significantly impacted the quality of urban life and personal safety. Therefore, advocating for humanity-oriented transportation, improving pedestrian environments, and reducing traffic conflicts have become trends. Our study introduces a topological optimization model using the Shepard density interpolation strategy to establish a traffic density field. The aim is to investigate how,...

  • The transition of urban transport towards sustainability stands as an outstanding challenge for the cities of the 21st century. The ubiquitous dominance of private motorised mobility has been identified as one of the main drivers for many negative urban developments in terms of urban sprawl or functionally segregated neighbourhoods (Wiersma et al., 2021). Cities are urged to actively promote sustainable transport solutions, fostering a mobility transition through initiatives such as cycling promotion, enhancing public transport infrastructure, and introducing innovative sharing services....

  • Annalisa Rollandi, Albedo Bettini, Filippo Bignami

    As urban populations grow, cities face the challenge of ensuring efficient, sustainable, and inclusive transportation systems. InclusiveMicroMob investigates the role of micro-mobility, specifically shared transportation options and the participatory process they can trigger, in fostering inclusive and sustainable urban mobility within the context of Lugano in Switzerland. The study explores how micromobility initiatives can address diverse community needs, improve accessibility, and contribute to new urban models, analyzing potential conflicts and synergies...

  • Introduction

    The concept of a multimodal mobility hub as a transport node, where the physical integration between transport services, intelligent technologies, and data-driven solutions allows users to combine several mobility options (Graf et al., 2022; Geurs et al., 2023) and its different typologies (Weustenenk & Mingardo, 2023), has recently gains space both in the Mobility Urban Agendas and in the academic domain.

    Multimodal Hubs in Literature

    In the Urban Mobility Agendas, the policy for implementing multimodality supports the integration...

  • The current shift in policy and planning towards sustainable cities and mobility has gained significant attention in academia. Much of this research is, however, dominated by actions centred only on densely populated settlements leaving a knowledge gap as regards the other settlement types, including suburban areas of large cities, small towns and rural areas (van Wee, 2016). Any transition to transport-efficiency needs to take into account the conditions in different spatial contexts (Larsson et al 2022). In practice, however, these strategies have mainly been implemented in the dense...

  • Over the past few decades, improvements in travel conditions have led to socio-spatial transformations, especially urban sprawl and increasing distances between housing and workplaces. These changes have favored the migration of new populations to rural and peri urban areas, including low-income households seeking affordable housing and households seeking a more natural environment. Moreover, these spatial changes have led to significant social inequalities, such as limited access to fast travel modes, which highly depends on personal characteristics (Preston, Rajé, 2007) or to...

  • Research in childhood and adolescent independent mobility has shown repeatedly, and in diverse locations, that there is a significant gender gap in independent agency; female children and adolescents are given less independent agency than their male counterparts (Ghekiere et al. 2017; Brown et al. 2008). Previous analyses of children’s travel in Belgium show that young teenagers shift a large portion of their daily travel from automobile travel to non-automobile travel at around 12 years old, with no statistically significant influence by gender (Fults, et al. 2023). Interestingly, it...

  • The world today is nearly unthinkable without high levels of mobility – either of oneself, or at least of goods, services and often even families and friends around one (Rosa, 2003). While mobility has arguably been crucial in some form or other throughout the history of humanity (Graeber & Wengrow, 2021), it seems that over time the speed and distance of mobility only keep increasing, and widely dominant economic and social systems are more and more dependent on such mobility (Rosa, 2018). Yet, it is now widely acknowledged that, at least in the current shape, this cannot go on, for...

  • Everyday mobility differs from place to place, but it can have certain commonalities. It is influenced or even characterised by an array of spatial, social, economic and even cultural conditions. We have, therefore, started from the assumption that mobility itself can be considered as a 'culture' and that in Europe the culture of mobility is currently evolving. In this context, REBALANCE, a Horizon 2020 project, was carried out by 6 participants from 6 European countries until the end of 2022. It aimed to identify the values and culture of future mobility. The project included a...

  • Mobility and transport are the only sectors in which GHG emissions are still increasing, despite considerable efforts to decarbonise them. At the urban level, this failure has been attributed to mobility policies and transition strategies firmly grounded in the car-centric and hypermobile status quo, with policymakers being reluctant to push for transformative, restrictive measures because they expect them to be unpopular (EEA, 2019; Marsden & Docherty, 2013). These assumptions are contrasted by the observation that...

  • Questions on the interconnections between mobility, social justice and transitions have evolved from transport equity to transport justice and again to mobility justice, gradually expanding the understanding how just mobility systems should be imagined and enacted (Verlinghieri & Schwanen, 2020). Mobilising these insights is deemed instrumental in the shift from composed ‘reformist’ studies towards more radical ‘transformative’ approaches to question underlying structures and conventions of mobility planning, governance and politics (Cox, 2023; Karner et al., 2023). Still,...

  • This paper presents insights from a sabbatical research project that problematizes the different ways in which planners, policy makers, and activists in California and Germany propose to “restore” nature and enhance the ecological functions of urban waterscapes like rivers and wetlands in the name of urban resilience-building and greening. My two main case study examples are the (still court-embattled) Ballona Wetlands Ecological Restoration Project near my current home in Los Angeles and the (recently completed and largely celebrated) 30-year renaturalization of the Emscher river in the...

  • In the context of climate emergency, it is crucial to reduce human mobility’s carbon footprint. Sustainable mobility (Banister, 2008) is essentially made of less trips, modal shift and less distance. Taking subjective experiences into account is needed to promote sustainable mobility while attempting to improve subjective wellbeing (SWB).

    SWB has two dimensions. In the hedonic dimension wellbeing is made of experiences of happiness based upon the satisfaction of preferences (Ryan & Deci, 2001). This is itself made up of three elements : the presence of positive feelings, the...

  • In the past decades, urban studies repeatedly highlighted proximity, inclusive public transports (PT), along with walkability and cyclability as major challenges for improving spatial justice and decarbonising mobility (e.g. Sclar et al., 2014). A range of accessibility indicators has been developed in this vein to evaluate equity in transportation (Pereira et al. 2016). Usual metrics are based on a combination of infrastructural data, information on their use and urban characteristics (demographics, the local distributions of ressources, etc.); they can be described as morphological...

  • Peraphan Jittrapirom, Vincent Marchau, Rob van der Heijden , Ruben Aske, Yuko Onishi

    The transition towards a more sustainable transport system is a complex and multifaceted process surrounded by uncertainties. This complexity stems from the involvement of diverse stakeholders within the transport sector, each with their own perspectives, visions or desirable future, and preferences regarding what constitutes sustainability, the current challenges, and the most suitable solutions, measures, and policies to achieve sustainable outcomes. The related uncertainty, on the other hand, arises from the future aspect and the long-time horizon that is concerned with the...

  • In the interest of sustainable transport planning, changes in mobility behavior are currently in the focus of mobility researchers worldwide, but the associated cultural and diversity-related dependencies demand more attention (Fainstein, 2010). Hence, the paper explores the changing intersections of mobility and social inclusion in an urban context (Cass, Shove, and Urry, 2005). Initially, it introduces theoretical discourses on mobility and inclusion, examining the changing urban mobility from different perspectives such as gender, age, and ethnicity. Utilizing a case study from...

  • The growing evidence on the health impact of exposure to air pollution, heightened public concern and stricter environmental legislation make local governments adopt increasingly strict measures to improve urban air quality. A popular instrument is the Low Emission Zone (LEZ), a defined urban area where the most polluting vehicles are no longer welcome. Although several studies have shown a significant (small) reduction in pollution levels after implementation, the policy measure remains controversial.

    The controversy is explained by two dimensions of social justice that can come...

  • Transportation planning has traditionally overlooked public participation, being highly influenced by technical approaches (Kębłowski & Bassens, 2018), while often adopting a post-political perspective (Legacy, 2016). Nonetheless, policymakers are increasingly interested in participatory methodologies that facilitate stakeholder involvement. This is because such involvement is central to developing solutions and policies that are just and sustainable, and facilitate their adoption (Triplett & Johnson, 2011). In this regard, participatory methods need to take into consideration...

  • Addressing global warming, especially in the mobility sector, requires a comprehensive response due to its substantial contribution to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries. The University of Lille is committed to environmental stewardship, conducting regular five-year carbon assessments, revealing that over half of its greenhouse gas emissions originate from home-university mobility. [1,2]

    To address transportation-related environmental challenges, the CUMIN research program (University Campus with Innovative and Carbon Neutral Mobility) transforms the Cité Scientifique...

  • The study investigates the feasibility of using renewable energy as a source for electric public transport network on the ground that it will improve both demand for mobility and boost energy transition. Use of renewable energy in public transport has substantial benefits from both demand and supply sides. Since 60% of operating cost of public transport is consisted of the fuel cost, electrification of public transport and further the use of renewable energy in generating the electricity will substantially reduce the operation cost over time. Electricity as fuel is 29% cheaper than...

  • Electric transition in road transportation is an inevitable changeover to reduce fossil-fuel-related carbon emissions and combat climate change. With a 45% share, road transportation constitutes the highest demand in global oil consumption, which as a sector has been facing significant challenges such as fluctuating prices and provision due to geopolitical tensions together with approaching peak levels (World Energy Outlook 2023; Kobashi et al., 2021). On the other hand, rapid developments in renewable energy technologies make clean...

  • Over the last fifteen years, the European Union (EU) has made growing efforts to phase out petrol-based automobility and has actively supported the development of alternative fuel options, with the aim to decarbonize the transport sector and address climate change. Notably, the EU has placed a strong emphasis on advancing electric vehicles (EVs) and electromobility. Pursuing a transition toward electromobility at the EU scale is about building a new, comprehensive socio-technical system, entailing a broad range of technological and non-technical innovations, together with a new...

  • Walkability is a concept designed to evaluate to what extent the built environment promotes or is pedestrian-friendly. Regarding urban mobility, walking and biking are widely recognised in scientific and political circles, with active school travel as a target to encourage physical activity, with short and long-term positive effects on children's autonomy, free air pollution, health, economy, and society. However, it requires supportive environments that safely accommodate children's activities. In this regard, walkability indices for streetscape and school...

  • EU countries are committed to achieving climate neutrality by 2050. The European Green Deal is the EU's strategy for achieving the 2050 target. The Green Deal is not simply a set of technical ambitions, it also seeks to fundamentally societal transformations and support behavioural changes (EC 2019).

    In light of pressing challenges such as climate change, real-life, participatory, adaptive, and reflexive experimental interventions are described as indispensable incubators for transformative change towards climate neutrality (Harderer et al. 2023). The EU funded Horizon 2020...

  • The United Nations (2020) emphasizes that more than 50% of the world's population will live in cities in 2050. Approximately 1/3 of this population consists of children. cities that are developed on motor vehicle-oriented urban transportation policies have vital effects on the environment and urban residents; when it comes to children, it prevents their healthy growth, safe and free movement, also weakens their relationship with the city. The scale of urban environments expands due to highways and motorized vehicle traffic, while the negative effects of exhaust...

  • Efficient transport systems and high travel speeds have generated unprecedented levels of accessibility considering the larger travel catchment areas. On the flip side, such conditions lessened the need for proximity which in turn led to the distancing of human activities and car dependency. This is particularly concerning when considering young children, who find less opportunities for independent mobility and accessibility, fuelling physical and cultural car-dependency from a very young age.

    In this presentation we develop a cross-section and longitudinal analysis of the levels...

  • Urban green spaces are usually associated with parks, forests and street greenery. However important and noticeable they may be, these flagship green spaces do not dominate urban landscapes. What makes cities green is mainly informal green space – vegetated areas not formally recognised or protected, such as recultivated landfills, brownfields or semi-private and even private greenery. While there is no doubt about the importance of informal green spaces for urban sustainability and resilience, little is known about the extent to which they contribute to active transportation, for...

  • The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) had a major impact on urban mobility and travel behaviour. It has been well documented that in the days of the COVID-19 outbreak, public transport has proved to be the most vulnerable transport mode throughout the world (see, for example, Das et al., 2021; Gutiérrez, Miravet and Domènech, 2021; Parker et al., 2021). Crowded vehicles, stations and stops were to be avoided to keep personal safe space and distance. In response to this concern for safe distancing, the change in travel behaviour has favoured personal transport modes, including both motorised...

  • The COVID-19 pandemic played out most visibly on city streets–once vibrant spaces and corridors turned quiet as the predictable rhythms of urban life were upended. As people rapidly shifted their routines and behaviors, public policy makers and urban planners had to respond with flexible policy and creative planning that allowed cities to quickly adjust to a very different reality. Public spaces were transformed so that residents could walk, bike, and roll more safely. Public transit systems worked to serve dependent populations, even while losing up to 75...

  • Transit-oriented communities, recognized for their compact, walkable layouts and convenient access to public transportation, have traditionally symbolized inclusive, resilient, and desirable places to live. The global COVID-19 pandemic, however, disrupted established transportation patterns, reshaping the dynamics of neighborhoods and urban spaces and potentially altering the attractiveness of transit-oriented communities.

    This study explores the overall resilience of neighborhoods surrounding subway stations in Toronto in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing their...

  • Jean DEBRIE, Juliette MAULAT, Celine VACCHIANI MARCUZZO

    Los Angeles has been emblematic of the city of cars for decades. The urban form, economic trajectories and cultural dimension of the metropolis reveal the omnipresence of this mode of transport, with commuters spending an average of 2-3 hours a day in one of the most characteristic areas of dense urban sprawl (Eidlin, 2005) in the United States, if not the world. Against this backdrop, public transport and active mobility have a low priority, despite the city's long history of rail and tramway networks, which have shaped part of its urban structure (Lefèvre, 1984). While the development...

TRACK 06: GOVERNANCE

  • The Rhenish mining area can serve as a real-word laboratory setting for agonistic planning theorists: since the middle of the last century open coal-pit mining led to a state of permanent conflict. In the 1970s and 80s citizens’ initiatives were founded fighting for their villages to stay. Inhabitants and NGOs tried to solve their argument juridically up to the German Federal Constitutional Court. But until recently neither the “right to home” nor environmental conservation criteria could outdo reasoning for security of energy supplies. With a growing influence of climate activists on...

  • The proposal focuses on the interactions between institutional participation mechanisms and ‘uninvited’ participation (Wynne, 2007; Wagenaar, 2014 in Bobbio and Melé, 2015) in the implementation of a relocation and urban redevelopment project to address coastal erosion in Ault (Baie de Somme, France). This project was launched in 2013 and its implementation quickly became very conflictual. We analyse the initial implementation of participatory mechanisms in the design of the project, the emergence of conflicts challenging these mechanisms, and the project's ability to manage these...

  • Conflicts are part and parcel of contemporary urban planning processes. The aim of this communication is to shed light on the role of such contentious moments in the elaboration and concretization of urban projects. 

    Results presented here are drawn from a doctoral research, using a multi-case strategy built on press analysis and semi-structured interviews, focusing on the effects of conflicts in planning processes and outcomes. The two cases studied were the Yellopark project—a new stadium for the local football club (and its adjacent urban development) in Nantes (France), and...

  • John Forester has suggested that one of the central tasks of planning is to organize attention and has even gone so far as to argue that there is indeed a “practical economic geography” of attention in planning, when taking into consideration that attention is a scarce and unevenly distributed resource (Forester, 1993).

    This paper picks up on this notion from Forester and develops this intriguing insight in dialogue with both classical organization theory on attention as a scarce resource in any organizational context (e.g., Simon, 1971), and more recent work from the field of...

  • The surge in social inequality across Europe, especially in urban areas, has worsened since the 2008 economic crisis. This phenomenon is particularly pronounced in Mediterranean countries and is intricately linked to the gradual weakening of the welfare state affecting the entire continent since the last decades of the previous century. The complexity of this outcome arises from the interplay between exclusionary market forces and state policies that, whether due to incapacity or reluctance, fall short in fostering inclusion (Fregolent and Nel·lo, 2021)....

  • This paper explores the motivations, mechanisms, and agendas of local opposition movements, as well as the ideological commitments upon which they are built. In pursuit of these objectives, the concept of 'populism' emerges as a valuable analytical device (Filion, 2011; Sager, 2020; Wanvik and Haarstad, 2021; Fainstein and Novy, 2023).  Despite the extensive discussion on populism in various social science disciplines, its exploration within the realm of planning theory and practice remains relatively undeveloped.

    Specifically, the paper is concerned with identifying a...

  • In the last two decades, cities worldwide have adopted plans and goals to reduce their energy based emissions and are increasingly switching to 100% renewable sources of energy. However, as renewable energy projects begin to materialise, conflicts have also emerged. Conflicts are often attributed to the spatial dimension of urban energy transitions, bringing the sources of energy production within or close to the city boundaries (Hoicka et al., 2021). The ecological impact of renewable energy projects in driving landscape change and impacting biodiversity is increasingly gaining...

  • Opposition to infrastructure development for the 2024 Olympics, to the construction of high-rise buildings (including the Tour Triangle), and to the megacomplex EuropaCity are among the most heated urbanization conflicts to have arisen in the Paris metropolitan area in recent years. Behind these highly publicized conflicts, the development of urbanization and urban planning policies are also shaped by more low-key conflicts. The tension between the imperatives of densification and adaptation to climate change is putting increasing pressure on urbanization in the Paris region. And most of...

  • The Indonesian government has recently promoted megaproject development to boost national economic growth. This policy has triggered socio-spatial transformations in various regions, particularly in tourism development projects that leverage the attractions of local rural landscapes. In addition to large-scale physical development activities, the business cycles/processes inherent in mega-projects utilizing international capital investment force the governance of rural spaces to change according to entrepreneurial logic. This transformation process is closely related to commodification,...

  • Critical realist approaches to structure and agency have their place within the trajectory of planning literature; some scholars explicitly mobilise the propositions (e.g., Moulaert et al., 2016; Næss et al., 2018; Xue, 2022) or inexplicitly show the influences in their works (to mention a few Tasan-Kok, 2008; Metzger, 2013; Oosterlynck & González, 2013; Sager, 2018). Surely, conflict (and power) is a big theme in the literature and many scholars working on the theme reflect some critical realist perspectives (see for example in these edited books Gualini, 2015b; Metzger et al.,...

  • Land use conflict research has long focussed on attempting to avoid or solve conflicts. However, more recently, agonistic views of conflict have found their way into the research field, with scholars emphasizing the inevitability of conflicts, as well as their positive functions (i.e., Harrison and Loring 2020, Wolf 2021). Rather than avoiding conflict per se, research has begun to focus on the question how conflicts can be managed to achieve productive outcomes. As a result, the dynamics of land use conflicts are recently receiving increasing interest in scholarly debate (i.e., Gualini...

  • In the aftermath of the February 2023 earthquakes that hit south of Turkey and northern Syria, millions of people are displaced, left homeless, and face tremendous hardship in post-disaster conditions for accessing

  • Growing critiques have been raised towards communicative and consensus-oriented approaches to urban planning and policies, because of their over-representation of the most powerful and their insufficient capacity to challenge hegemonic dynamics (Purcell, 2009). At the same time, the value of conflict and antagonism has been highlighted, as a means to pursue social justice and transformative outcomes. Nevertheless, how conflicts with hegemonic positions may create new spaces for co-production of alternative development patterns and innovate urban planning and policy making is still an...

  • This paper investigates the physical planning issues related to the siting of stations on the Athens metro lines. A ‘technical’ choice has become a contentious issue that has brought the debate to a political level. Considering issues of problematic or conflictual siting that had arisen during the planning of the first phase of the metro (base project), the paper focuses on two current acute issues (of line [4]), those of the location and form of the Exarchia and Evangelismos (Rizari) metro stations. Trying to see the problems under the light of mainly eco-environmental and social...

  • In contemporary politics, participatory governance is justified as a way of decentralising power. As it weakens the state’s control and decentralises its power, it is a way of governing that embraces a certain anarchism but in a coordinated manner. However, it appears to empower the individuals and societies that already have considerable economic and societal power in the political society at large.( e.g. Kohler-Koch & Quittkat 2013) With regard to planning, the participatory planning processes that emphasise individualistic channels of participation may end up only...

  • Climate change dynamics trigger very diverse effects at spatial and territorial level, and their impacts on the territorial domain are typically contentious, in that they entail structural distributional issues at different scales in relation to different populations, as literature in the environmental domain has shown since long (Swyngedow Heyned 2003; Mohai, Pellow, Timmons Roberts 2009). Moreover, the possible policy directions to tackle them, in terms of prevention, mitigation and adaptation, open distributional games very difficult to tackle with traditional public policy tools...

  • In the last decades planning research has explored the actions that citizens perform to directly tackle problematic situations and public problems through different lenses, ranging from self-organisation to social innovation, from autonomous practices to bottom-up public policies. Across these conceptualisations, scholars have often framed public administrations and civic initiatives as two distinct sectors of society: the first riddled with institutional rigidity which limits their capacity to face emerging problematic situations; the second as...

  • In the current context, characterised by transversal and systemic crises and the intensification of socio-spatial inequalities, cities are asserting themselves as the main arenas for confronting and overcoming those crises (Fainstein, 2014; Bua and Bussu, 2023). The complexity of these challenges – democratic, environmental, socio-economic and urban - requires a deep transformation in the field of urban planning and governance, especially in the construction of new forms of relations between citizens and government institutions. Urban policy agendas have...

  • Administrative planners interact with local citizens in various ways when it comes to processes of urban development and transformation. Especially in public participation processes it is possible for them to enable and activate citizens to participate and co-create. But planners refer a lot to challenges of participation: It is hard to get citizens to participate and if they do participate, interaction is characterized by opposition and conflict. Apart from that, purpose and scope of citizen participation and the influence citizens (should) have on decision making processes are...

  • Participatory budgeting (PB) is a tool that has made its way to success worldwide. It adapted well in different contexts and planning cultures. Native to South America, for over two decades now, it has been implemented in European towns and cities. Due to its flexibility and simple concept, PB is relatively easy to introduce regardless of the scale and existing participatory infrastructure. Also, its formula promotes the agency of citizens and local communities in addressing their actual needs.

    However successful, PB’s implementation is not resistant to specific threats, such as...

  • The contribution provides an insight on the role of engaged universities in providing governance initiatives by introducing new patterns of interaction on strategic regional planning in soft governance planning spaces as the river basins.

    Based on the experience of the Regional Design Lab (ReDLab), Department of Architecture of the University of Florence in the definition of river agreements, the contribution provides a comparative analysis of different contexts in terms of governance structures and process leaders and activators:

    - two community-led participatory process...

  • Elinor Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework (IAD) is frequently used to study an institutional setting for governance practices in spatial planning. Our impression is that this often happens without awareness of or structural incorporation of conditions under which this frame was developed. We believe that these conditions are essential for the applicability of the framework and therefore the reliability of the institutional analysis. For example, the IAD framework emerged out of a particular set of cases, being small communities dealing with a scarce common. This...

  • Contemporary urban planning underscores the imperative of inclusive public engagement of diverse stakeholders. In an era of heightened global mobility, tourists can develop strong place attachment to distant places among which islands take specific place. On islands, tourist numbers may easily exceed the local community during busy seasons and while the numbers may be high and the place attachment may be strong, tourists are barely given the opportunity to participate in decision-making of local governance because of their non-citizen identity. In this research, we move beyond tourist...

  • This paper discusses whether and how urban planning practice could be reframed to facilitate increased place attachment, social connection, and care for neighbourhoods as part of plan making processes.  Cities worldwide continue to face urban growth pressures due to high rates of migration and structural demographic change.  Australian cities are a prime example of large cities experiencing strong population growth. Melbourne, for example, has experienced an annual growth of about 2% on average over the last decade (ABS 2022). This growth is playing out in both continued urban expansion...

  • Urban transformations are associated with a combination of factors such as negotiation between urban, public and private actors; the generation of local leadership (political and civic); joint will; and public consensus (Castells & Borja, 1996). With this work, we seek to understand how collaborative approaches contribute to mitigating conflicts and building consensus in urban planning processes. It starts with the understanding that the elaboration or review of a municipal master plan is an opportunity to expand the democratic character of the production of cities, as it involves...

  • At the beginning, as in any development project, there are several stakeholders. Public and private stakeholders, visionary politicians, pragmatic planners, committed developers and social landlords. And then, of course, there are the inhabitants, the people living there and the users. Very quickly, several issues emerged and antagonisms were revealed: maintaining economic and commercial activity, densifying the area, conserving a social and cultural identity, modernizing the district. Such an urban project is clearly projected onto a pre-existing space, and the confrontation with deeper...

  • In this paper, I discuss invited (including co-production) and activist bottom-up forms of knowledge production to highlight their relations with power and their transformative potential in affecting the construction of more socio-environmentally just urban space for vulnerable communities of human and non-human. My  goal is not  to produce normative and conclusive answers on the topic. It is to reflect on the potentialities of each of these forms of knowledge prodcution in triggering ontological and epistemological changes in oppressive frames of thinking and action. It highlights...

  • Participatory planning has long been advocated as a pivotal method for creating sustainable cities. This approach hinges on the inclusion of all societal and economic groups within the urban context, recognizing them as the rightful owners and decision-makers of their cities, (Jacobs, 1961). In the context of mega cities, this condition could be regarded as ambitious.

    Currently, there are 33 megacities worldwide, a number expected to rise to 44, as projected by the United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs (United Nations, 2018). These sprawling urban landscapes,...

  • This paper presents a review of the complex deliberation and negotiation processes embedded in practices of managing international ports. The dynamic transformation of port governance in the last several decades shows how port governance keeps reforming to find the most appropriate model and to avoid failure (Baltazar & Brooks, 2006; Debrie et al., 2013). However, transforming from one model to another, for example, through port devolution from mono to polycentric governance, does not guarantee failure-free. Practices of port governance have become an increasingly important field in...

  • Over the years planning theorists have engaged in extensive debates over different approaches to dealing with conflicts among diverse stakeholders in planning, among which two major planning approaches prevail. Collaborative or communicative planning, rooted in Habermasian communicative rationality, strives to attain consensus-oriented planning decisions through inclusive and deliberative processes where participants hold equal positions and engage in sincere communication (e.g., Healey, 2020). This planning approach faces criticism in contemporary pluralist societies due to its...

  • This research seeks to examine the diverse cultures and values of stakeholders—ranging from the private sector, local authorities, community members, and government bodies—involved in the tourism-driven waterfront development in Da Nang city. It evaluates the influence of participation on the planning outcomes for public spaces and how public participation contributes to reimagining place identities within a tourist setting.

    Building upon Henri Lefebvre's seminal idea of "the right to the city," which posits that meaningful urban life is realized through the collective access and...

  • How do you manage a city whose residents are not only diverse, but also in conflict with each other? Diverse in terms of religion, language, culture, socio-economic power, and world views, and in a conflict that is rooted in history, geopolitics, and religion. It is a city of global importance, yet very much a place where individuals live their daily lives. 

    In his 1988 Foreign Affairs essay, then-Mayor Teddy Kollek made the case for greater self-governance of Jerusalem’s different communities. This idea gave...

  • The over-extraction and uneven distribution of resources pose significant challenges to environmental and social sustainability. Addressing these challenges requires a shift from the conventional economic growth to a post-growth model centered on well-being and fair resource distribution. Urban environment is a key setting for resource management with worldwide urbanization. Urban commons, defined as an urban-related resource system that is self-governed by a community of users, offer potential for post-growth transitions through decommodification (Bakker, 2007; Ostrom, 2015). They...

  • In political science theories, definitions of the public sphere are discussed through concrete examples in urban life, and it is observed that there is no clear definition of what the "public sphere" includes. While Habermas(2004) considers the public sphere as a field of communicative action, Arendt(2012) considers the public sphere as a field of work, labor, and action. Unlike these two important approaches, Sennett (2010) considers the public sphere as a space where adult citizens can become actors and become increasingly homogenized. The most important element at the center of these...

  • This paper highlights the need for finding radical new ways of planning that extend beyond nation state-based international policy making. As a territorial governance agenda in a climate crisis, a radical shift is needed around the ways in which we collectively care for and govern planetary commons (Rockstrom et al 2024, Zaidi et al 2024). Latour (2018) has argued that ‘belonging to territory’ is critical to the politics of the new climactic regime which requires a democratic politics that leads humanity back ‘towards the Earth’ and not just back towards ‘the global or national’. The...

  • In the last twenty years, the urban commons' concept joined, in a very controversial way, the academic and professional debate on urban planning and city-making (Buchs & al., 2019). Inside this debate the “commoning practices” act to protect some part of the city from the market and the neoliberal forces that try to capture it (Harvey, 2012; Festa 2017). But what happens if these practices are promoted by the administrations? How do they change the roles of public and private actors and owners in the urban transformation project ?

    In the last ten years, in Italy, we observed...

  • If care is one dimension of welfare that we need to reappropriate to protect the foundations of a democratic society and democracy (Tronto, 2013), publicness is the other. Well before and independently from the current privatization processes resulting from the market intervention, “the organizational mold of the welfare state at the various levels in which it translates collective, public values, interests, and goals - from everyday practices to systemic organizational effects - tends to generate communication blocks, separations, and segmentations of social relations, isolation,...

  • Wood pasture is a neutral designation that, following a geographical approach, indicates a type of landscape with trees where grazing is the main driver. From a socio-ecological perspective, wood pasture systems vary depending on the interactions between ecological components, stakeholders involved, management systems, and governance systems. As a practice, wood pasture takes on multiple forms, including traditional, contingency-driven practices based on the economic and land availability of the shepherd/farmer, and innovative practices within agroforestry activities. What distinguishes...

  • China has been pursuing a rural revitalization strategy in recent years. Rural areas located on the outskirts of metropolitan areas have outstanding advantages in rural tourism development due to their superior geographical location. In particular, the implementation of significant projects such as Disney has caused similar characteristics of rural gentrification in the rural revitalization of Western countries. However, rural gentrification in Western countries and China shows many differences in terms of the interests of rural indigenous people and the role of local governments....

  • With the development of globalization and economic integration, the pattern of the world's division of production is changing. The Bay Area, as a large nucleus of economic growth poles, plays an important role in facilitating regional participation in the global economic cycle and high-quality urbanization development. In 2019, the government published the Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, which means the development of urbanization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has entered a new phase. The traditional region's urbanization...

  • Over the past decade, a significant surge of interest in soft planning and soft spaces has emerged, reshaping planning processes and governance dynamics. These concepts have catalyzed innovative planning approaches and the rescaling of governance arrangements, challenging the conventional boundaries associated with hard spatial planning. They underpin the foundation of a new planning paradigm, characterized by a shift in territorial governance facilitated by more flexible governance arrangements beyond the formal ones and the creation of new spaces for planning...

  • In recent decades, the diverse functional interdependencies between cities and their surrounding areas have led to the development of urban regions. Beyond the administrative boundaries of cities, there is therefore a need to manage political and planning coordination processes in the urban-rural continuum. In doing so, the interests of the large core cities must be harmonised with the interests of smaller cities in the surrounding areas and rural areas in the surrounding countryside (Zimmermann, Feiertag 2022). Inter-municipal contentious issues between the city-regional sub-areas...

  • Lorena Mello e Figueiredo, Luis Fernando Massonetto, Luciana Royer

    The paper will explore how metropolitan regions are planned and governed in Brazil. To that effect, it will explain how metropolitan regions are created in the country, and under which premises. It will discuss their governance mechanisms and planning instruments, such as the Integrated Urban Development Plan, public service agreements and public functions of common interest. The methodology draws on the analysis of federal laws and Brazilian legal doctrine, and review of the specialized literature from urban law, urbanism, and planning.

    According to the Brazilian Institute of...

  • The county economy in South Jiangsu, supported by development zone and town, is the representative model of Chinese urbanization. However, in the process of rapid urbanization, differences in management systems between development zone and town lead to conflicts in the areas of rights boundary and social management responsibility, which is not conducive to the overall development of the region. Under the guidance of new urbanization, the overall development strategy of building a "Development Zone and Town Community" has become the consensus of southern Jiangsu with the integration of...

  • The Yangtze River Delta region is the most developed region in China's economy and industry, and also the region with the highest degree of opening to the outside world in China, which plays an important leading role in realizing the high-quality development of China. According to the theory of modern economic growth, human capital (especially education) is the source of economic growth, in which advanced education improves the total factor productivity by accelerating the speed of technological innovation and imitation. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the development relationship...

  • In the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization, the problem of rural decline has become a global trend. In response to this trend, China's central government put forward the rural revitalization strategy in 2017. Industrial prosperity is the core of the rural revitalization strategy. Shanghai is the most economically developed city in China, but its rural areas also have problems such as aging, hollowing out and widening economic gap between urban and rural areas. Since 2018, the Shanghai municipal government has created 112 model villages for rural revitalization as the...

  • Starting from the ongoing processes of transformation in dynamic industrial contexts, the paper discusses the need to redefine the role of guidance of public actors at different scales, while promoting new forms of public-private governance systems aimed at territorial regeneration.

    The thesis of the paper is that with the transition to post-industrial forms of production, the territory is not only a node within networks and flows, but also a strategic resource, expendable on the global market. Moreover, the health and livability of local contexts become fundamental factors in...

  • Urban shrinkage is a widely spread phenomenon across the world, expanding to rapidly urbanizing China since 2000s. Urban shrinkage emerging around core cities is one of the typical shrinking modes in China. A salient example is the severe shrinkage of cities surrounding Chengdu and Chongqing in the past twenty years. However, previous research has paid a lot attention to the identification of urban shrinkage in overall China and its driving force in north-eastern and south-eastern China, but there are few in-depth studies in China’s southwestern regions, wherein urban shrinkage is driven...

  • With the rapid development of urbanization, urban sprawl has resulted in the misuse of resources and the inefficiency of urban land use, so how cities can be of high quality is an urgent problem to be solved for the development of cities in various countries. Exploring the low-utility land remediation of land space is of great significance to optimize the pattern of land resource use and promote industrial upgrading. During decades of rapid urbanization, China has entered a period of stock development, and in the context of the reform of land spatial planning, the government pays more...

  • In Europe and China, the growth of secondary cities is reported to surpass that of primate cities due to factors such as urbanization policies, environmental concerns and considerations for life quality. Primate cities are the largest cities in a country or region, while secondary cities are cities that are second to primate cities in the urban hierarchy. While essential for regional development and national economic performance, secondary cities encounter challenges such as limited industrial and talent attraction compared to primate cities and insufficient political influence in...

  • Equivalence of living conditions is one of the fundamental issues of spatial planning. It is about equivalent development opportunities, access and accessibility to infrastructures of general interest and much more. Particularly in shrinking and structurally weak regions, the capacity of services of general interest is jeopardized. This is where inter-municipal cooperation plays a significant role. Inter-municipal alliances offer opportunities for greater adaptability and resilience of cities and better provision of services of general interest for the population.

    The shrinking...

  • The awareness grows that even seemingly commonplace planning challenges – such as noise disturbance, parking issues, and privacy concerns – call for systemic changes that imply complex transitions, cross multiple scales and involve a large diversity of stakeholders (Meadow, 1999). Flanders employs ‘strategic projects’ as a key instrument to navigate this transition. A strategic project comes with an iterative process structured around three interconnected tracks: developing a shared vision at the regional scale, investing in strategic locations, and establishing a collaborative process...

  • In many national contexts, societal policy challenges are more interconnected than ever, necessitating the development of a new collaborative approach and the forging of broad coalitions. The regional level is often highlighted in the literature as a suitable scale to achieve various forms of policy integration (Gualini, 2006). The region is framed as a platform where diverse societal objectives can be realized by facilitating interaction among different actors and policy levels (Fricke & Gualini, 2018).

    Various policy dynamics within many EU states attempt to concretely...

  • Regional Managing Authorities (MAs), particularly those at the NUTS2 level in Italy, play a pivotal role in managing territorial development policies, coordinating and integrating diverse strategies and initiatives across multiple governance levels. This study delves into the practical and operational methods employed by MAs to navigate these complexities, focusing on the transition between the 2014-2020 and 2021-2027 European Programming cycles.

    The research, conducted by Prof. Sarah Isabella Chiodi and Dr. Lorenzo Liguoro at Politecnico di Milano, examines the experiences of...

  • This paper takes as its point of departure the contemporary climate crisis and asks questions about the appropriate territorial scales of governance for the Anthropocene. With a focus on  water, and using evidence from the US and Mexico, the paper assesses the extent to which current governance arrangements deriving from 19th century political arrangements are capable of addressing the 21st century  water challenges set in motion by climate change.  In addition to examining the historical evolution of water governance arrangements and how they have been challenged...

  • Over the last decades, experiments have been proliferating in urban areas as key modalities to foster urban sustainability governance (Fuenfschilling et al., 2019). Examples of urban experiments range from living laboratories, to tactical urbanism, pilot projects, multi actors´ partnership, and similar. They can be defined as temporally and spatially bounded initiatives engaging with forms of experimental governance, aiming to prefigure and concretely materialise more sustainable futures here and now, but also aspiring for more systemic and impactful (urban) transformations (Sengers et...

  • Cities play a crucial role in advancing climate ambition, given the challenging objective of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5°C. European cities are exploring planning and designing solutions to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and address the impacts of climate-induced extreme events, including challenges arising from elevated temperatures and the intensification of the Urban Heat Islands (UHI) effect. Despite the ongoing efforts of cities, there is a need for improvement in integrating local climate mitigation and adaptation actions.

    Urban Climate Shelter (UCS) is...

  • The European Green Deal promotes a twinned transition that pivots on a green transition and a just transition. Accordingly, the Member States have been preparing their Territorial Just Transition Plans (TJTP) (European Commission, 2021), the National Energy and Climate Plans (NECP), and the National Long-term Strategies (NLTS) (European Commission, 2018) in order to conceptualize and operationalize their Just Green Transitions (JGT) towards achieving the European Green Deal’s carbon-neutrality by 2050 (European Commission, 2019).

  • Cities across the globe are struggling with finding appropriate responses to growing climate change effects in combination with other urban challenges, rising population densities, and contestations for space. Accordingly, government bodies on all scales call for more integrated and synergetic adaptative measures that can deal with multiple challenges simultaneously. While primarily intended to mitigate issues related to climate change effects, Nature-based Solutions (NBS) as cost-effective interventions inspired by nature are often characterised by their ability to provide multiple...

  • Climate governance is polycentric, with diverse standard-setting centers and no chains of delegation, and is transnational, existing outside of the realm of national states. This transnational and polycentric nature motivated innovations to accountability and authority that create bases of legitimacy parallel to representative democracy (Bäckstrand, Zelli & Schleifer 2018). Cities have often voluntarily adopted and helped create new forms of accountability and authority and engage in horizontal and vertical governance chains outside of nation-states.

    Accountability and...

  • Climate action in cities is increasingly recognized as of strategic importance to accomplish the global governance of climate change (Bulkeley 2021; Hölscher, 2019). The building sector is pointed as a key lever to speed up the energy transition and deliver emission reductions by 2030 – in fact, 40% of Europe’s energy demand comes from buildings (UNEP, 2022). Spanish cities are translating these objectives into local action by investing in energy retrofits in residential buildings, having been further supported by the stimulus package “NextGenerationEU.”...

  • Elgar Kamjou, Mark Scott, Mick Lennon

    Green interventions have been applied to a growing number of cities to address climate change adaptation, nature recovery and sustainable development. However, such interventions in cities of the global South can exacerbate inequalities and result in green gentrification, residents' displacement and the relocation of informal settlements (Anguelovski, Irazábal‐Zurita and Connolly, 2019; Matsler, Meerow, Mell and Pavao-Zuckerman, 2021). Only recently have scholars paid attention to uneven land-use regulations in greening approaches toward informal settlements. Studies illustrate that...

  • With the rapid urbanization process and an increase in living standards, household energy consumption has become a primary driver of high energy consumption and carbon emissions, leading to a gradual rise in household carbon footprints. Over the past two decades, the carbon footprint of Chinese households has accounted for more than 40% of the total carbon emissions from primary energy utilization. Factors such as residential types, energy consumption patterns, dietary habits, and family composition play significant roles in reducing carbon footprints in daily life. Therefore, this study...

  • The city of Goiás, Brasil, has evolved closely attached to its main River, the Vermelho River. Nevertheless, this relationship was conflictual and changed overtime as nature had different social meanings. Although the city started with the exploration of gold in the margins of the river, this was a dangerous place, occupied by slaves and diseases, so the city developed with its back to the river. In this colonial context, nature was seen on the one hand, as wild and a threat, and on the other hand, it was welcomed in backyards in the form of idyllic gardens that replicated gifts from God...

  • Over the past decades, with accelerated warming affecting all countries in the world, the Western Balkans region has well significantly impacted by climate change, pollution, and its various environmental consequences. The lack of adaptation measures towards environmental challenges, poses on the other hand, risks such as economic losses, health impacts, and water scarcity.

    On a global scale, the concept and approach of "Just Green Transition" are being introduced and embraced. Yet, as “transition” itself signals epochal change to various degrees, it unfolds at the same time...

  • The imperative to address conflicts, contradictions, and agonistic alternatives in shaping urban spaces aligns seamlessly with the challenges encountered in implementing the ecological transition. In 2019, through the European Green Deal, the European Union formalized its commitment to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. While the objectives of this strategy are clearly defined, the challenges lie in the intricate implementation methods. A significant hurdle pertains to the imperative of engaging citizens in decision-making processes, integrating them into a...

  • Experimentalist governance has become more prominent in addressing planning issues at supra-national, national, and sub-national levels over the last two decades. Such experimentalist arrangements grant substantial policy discretion to lower-level planning entities and aim to incrementally improve planning through learning-by-monitoring and recursively comparing approaches across contexts (see e.g., Rangoni and Zeitlin, 2021).

    So far, scholars of experimentalist governance have mainly studied the processes through which, and the conditions under which...

  • Resident opposition to urban intensification is often framed pejoratively as NIMBYism (Not In My BackYard) to describe where residents object to urban infill planning proposals with the assumption they are motivated by self-interests such as maintaining property values. Public commentators also identify resident opposition as an influential obstacle to urban intensification in Australian cities, which is exacerbating the housing affordability crisis in and contributing to a deepening intergenerational divide between older property owners and younger renters who have been locked out of...

  • In order to face socio-environmental issues, Paris is planning to change its urban planning regulations: the local urban plan (PLU) will become a bioclimatic local urban plan by early 2024. The term bioclimatic refers to an architectural concept that adapts to the characteristics and particularities of the site: its climate, geography and geomorphology. A bioclimatic PLU will take advantage of the environment to achieve the most coherent design possible. As the Parisian PLU is the first to become bioclimatic, it seems relevant to confront the ambitions announced with the feelings of...

  • Clarissa Attombri, Martin Lehmann, Thomas Skou Grindsted, Nicola Tollin

    Denmark is the first country in the world to have successfully involved all its municipalities in producing Local Climate Plans (LCPs) through a nationwide initiative, the DK2020 Project. The pilot project was established in 2019 with only 20 municipalities by Realdania, one of the most significant Danish philanthropic associations, and was later extended to produce climate action plans for all 98 Danish municipalities. By 2023, all local governments produced their LCPs according to a version of the C40’s Climate Action Planning Framework (CAPF) (C40 Cities, 2020

  • As urban areas are increasingly pressed to engage with the sustainable transition, the concept of Positive Energy Districts (PEDs) is gaining momentum as a potential game changing force. The complexity of PEDs is at the forefront of planning efforts as renewable energy production, energy balancing, and energy communities is becoming key within the urban context (Koutra et al. 2023, Matsson et al. 2023, Van Wees et al. 2022). This conference paper explores the transformative potential of PEDs as a planning approach beyond a matter of only an energy balance. By exploring a...

  • The dynamic and evolving connection between ports and cities has created a complex, unique, and distinctive context. Presently, port cities stand as some of the regions most susceptible to the impacts of climate change. However, they also find themselves in advantageous positions with considerable influence, positioning them strategically to offer solutions to emerging challenges. In this regard, port cities emerge as key territories in pursuing enhanced sustainability (Sánchez and LeMaIRe, 2021).

    In the pursuit of more sustainable port cities, one of the most important aspects is...

  • Although planning in post-socialist cities has long suffered from a legitimacy crisis, recent research identifies a “cautious revival” for planning buoyed by strengthening economic conditions, urban activism, and European Union (EU)-led interventions (Slaev and Hirt 2022). This paper examines the revival of planning in post-socialist urban space through a case study of Tbilisi, Georgia’s 2019 Master Plan—by all accounts a more comprehensive urban policy framework than any previous planning effort in Georgia post-independence. In response to the chaotic construction spawned by the...

  • For many years, 'temporary use' has been utilised by municipal planners as a flexible and informal planning instrument to reactivate urban brownfields (Castells 1983; Bishop & Williams 2012). Recent examples of the Swiss urban densification context show, however, that 'temporary use' has recently changed its strategic function from being a catalyst for revitalization to testing new uses (Galdini, 2019), particularly in cities with high population growth and affordable housing shortages. Residential temporary use approaches (e.g., container or...

  • China’s (re)development is characterized by state-led, large-scale, and multi-level: The state usually plays the leading role in driving such practices to maintain strong control over changes regarding spatial, economic, and political landscapes; Such projects usually package a range of urban functions, including office and industrial buildings, commercial districts, housing, and various amenities and facilities; And (re)development activities might happen at multiple levels, covering region, urban, and neighborhood scales. The governance model in such practices has been identified as...

  • In the face of the climate emergency, the necessity of a systemic transition in lifestyles (Avelino et al., 2015) calls upon national governments to integrate citizens into these processes.

    However, the contemporary and escalating crises of representative democratic systems (Lardeux 2019, Bertolone and Winock 2015, Gallo 2021...) demonstrate a globalised issue of detachment of citizens from institutions.

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